Vous préparez un concours, un examen, un contrôle ou vous désirez simplement briller en société ? Venez profiter quelques instants d’une nourriture intellectuelle qui saura ravir le coureur de salon que vous êtes, venez chercher la phrase d’accroche parfaite pour votre prochain écrit, venez découvrir les petites histoires de la fin de la Grande Guerre.

La Première Révolution d’Égypte

En 1919, l’Égypte est ce que l’on appelle un Protectorat Britannique, c’est à dire un Etat protégé et contrôlé par la couronne britannique. Cependant, le statut de protecteur s’est peu à peu effacé au profit d’exploitant. Pour soutenir l’effort de guerre, conscription forcée, appropriation des cultures de coton, approvisionnement forcée des soldats et bureaucratie coloniale sont venus accablés le peuple égyptien.
Naît alors une délégation, musulmane et chrétienne, souhaitant porter la volonté d’indépendance de l’Égypte à la Conférence de paix de Paris. Refoulée, la délégation devient, sous l’impulsion d’un certain Saad Zaghloul, un parti, le Wafd, et des émeutes naissent, d’abord au Caire, puis dans tout le pays. Il faudra attendre 1922 pour que le Gouvernement Britannique proclame la fin du protectorat, puis 1936 pour que l’indépendance du pays soit proclamée (le Royaume-Uni gardant tout de même le contrôle du Canal de Suez jusqu’en 1953).

Manifestation du Caire, 1919 (crédit photo: mideastimage.com)

Troisième Guerre Anglo-Afghane

En 1880, à la suite de la Seconde Guerre Anglo-Afghane, le Royaume-Unis dresse un quasi-Protectorat britannique d’Afghanistan, en prenant le contrôle des affaires étrangères du pays qui faisait office d’État Tampon (État qui en sépare d’autres) entre les Inde Britanniques et la Russie Impériale.
L’Émirat Afghan se promet une vengeance qui aura lieu presque 40 ans plus tard. Le 3 mai 1919, une incursion de troupes afghanes à la frontière nord du pays fait réagir l’État-major britannique qui pousse le vice-roi Lord Chelmsford à déclarer la guerre en représailles le 6 mai. Le 8 août 1919, presque 3000 morts plus tard, la paix est signée. le Traité de Rawalpindi reconnaît l’Indépendance de l’Afghanistan et met un terme aux volontés d’expansion des Indes britanniques.

Guerre Arméno-Turque

10 août 1920, le Traité de Sèvres cède les régions de Van et de Bitlis, jusqu’alors Turcs, à l’Arménie, pays né en 1918 et tentant, malgré le Génocide de 1915-1916, de trouver sa place dans l’échiquier politique du Caucase.
La Turquie, se sentant flouée, attaque l’Arménie, exsangue, le 23 septembre 1920. Le 18 novembre 1920, l’armistice est signée, l’Arménie a été écrasée. Le 2 décembre, le Traité d’Alexandropol est signé, l’Arménie devient une République Socialiste Soviétique pour continuer d’exister. Elle le restera jusqu’en 1991.

Premier pays à légaliser l’avortement

Même s’il y sera ré-interdit entre 1936 et 1955, la République Socialiste Fédérative Soviétique de Russie, future URSS, autorise l’avortement. C’est à l’époque tantôt expliqué par la lutte pour le droit des femmes, par la volonté de favoriser le travail de celle-ci ou simplement médicale. La pratique sera très fortement surveillée, et le manque d’infrastructures médicales poussera les femmes à se faire avorter dans des conditions d’hygiènes désastreuses. La grande figure de ce combat, commissaire du peuple (ministre) à l’Assistance publique (santé), est Alexandra Kollontaï.

Alexandra Kollontaï (crédit photo: Babelio)

Naissance d’un État

Le 6 décembre 1921, le Traité Anglo-Irlandais, issu de la Guerre d’Indépendance Irlandaise, donne naissance à l’État Libre d’Irlande, qui deviendra la République d’Irlande en 1937.
Cependant, une partie des comtés du nord reste fidèle à la monarchie britannique et décide de rester membre du Royaume-Uni, c’est la naissance de l’Irlande du Nord. Des violences et des affrontements s’en suivront jusque dans les années 1990, causant notamment une Guerre Civile entre 1922 et 1923. C’est l’une des raisons qui rend les négociations du Brexit aussi tendues aujourd’hui.

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