L’impossible accord du Brexit

Par le 25 mars 2019

Le 24 juin 2016, l’Union européenne toute entière a tremblé au son de la voix de Jenny Watson, Présidente de la Commission Électorale en charge du référendum sur le Brexit. Celle-ci annonçait que plus de 17 millions de Britanniques avaient voté, la veille, pour quitter l’Union, contre à peine plus de 16 millions ayant voté l’inverse.

Le Premier Ministre Britannique de l’époque, David Cameron, démissionne sur ce coup de théâtre pour céder sa place à la Ministre de l’Intérieur, Theresa May, qui prend alors les commandes d’un Royaume-Uni qui, trois ans plus tard, s’enfonce dans une crise politique et institutionnelle majeure, qui menace l’intégrité même du territoire de sa Majesté. Où fuit la barque du Royaume-Uni ? L’Union européenne coule-t-elle comme les “Brexiters” l’avaient prévu ? Dans la tempête britannique, il semble que le 10 Downing Street prend l’eau.

Au Royaume-Uni, la situation est bloquée à la Chambre

Le 13 novembre 2018, Londres et Bruxelles tombent enfin sur un accord pour les conditions du Brexit. Du moins, c’est ce que l’on croyait ce jour-là. En réalité, c’est le Gouvernement de Theresa May qui tombe sur un accord avec Bruxelles. À la Chambre des Communes, équivalent de l’Assemblée nationale au Royaume-Uni, l’accord est rejeté à deux reprises, le 15 janvier 2019 et le 12 mars 2019, de même qu’est rejetée la possibilité d’une sortie sans accord le lendemain.


John Bercow, Speaker de la Chambre des Communes (personne qui dit qui, quand et combien de temps les députés peuvent parler, mais aussi dans quel ordre sont votés lois et amendements; il est tenu à la neutralité) est accusé d’avoir influencé les votes des députés en faveur du rejet de l’accord dans sa répartition des votes dans l’emploi du temps (Crédit Photo: The Independant)

L’Europe reste inflexible

Contrairement à ce qu’envisageaient les Brexiters, l’Union européenne ne s’est pas effondrée dans le sillage du départ du Royaume-Uni. Bien au contraire.
En effet, même si celle-ci connaît elle aussi une crise politique importante, c’est face aux 27 États membres en ordre de bataille que le Gouvernement britannique dialogue, et leur position est inflexible: l’accord qui a été voté est le seul accord possible.

Face à ce mur, le Royaume-Uni et ses Brexiters, qui se croyaient en position de force, voit se profiler au loin le risque du “No Deal”, la situation où du jour au lendemain toutes les frontières entre l’Union et le Royaume-Uni se fermeraient.

Pour éviter cette situation, dans la nuit du 21 au 22 mars 2019, les États européens accordent un délai supplémentaire au Royaume-Uni sous leur forme d’un choix:
– Soit le 12 avril: c’est la date limite à laquelle un pays membre de l’UE peut organiser des élections européennes. Ce cas de figure s’appliquerait si le Royaume-Uni ne trouvait pas d’accord d’ici là.
– Soit le 22 mai: Ce cas de figure s’appliquant si le Royaume-Uni vote l’accord proposé par les Européens.


Nigel Farage, ex-leader du mouvement UKIP pro-Brexit (Crédit Photo: Daily Express)

Que contient l’accord ?

Nous avons parlé plus haut du fameux accord entre l’Union et le Royaume-Uni sur la sortie de celui-ci du marché commun, il est temps maintenant d’expliquer ce que celui-ci contient, en soulignant les 8 point auxquels l’Union Européenne a donné la priorité.

  1. Transition: Le premier des points de l’accord est la mise en place d’une période de transition (pouvant durer jusqu’en 2022) ayant pour objectif de laisser à l’Union comme au Royaume-Uni le temps de mettre en place les dispositifs nécessaires à leurs nouveaux statuts.
  2. Filet de Sécurité: La principale barrière au divorce entre l’UE et le Royaume-Uni est la frontière irlandaise. En effet, l’Irlande est divisée entre la République d’Irlande au Sud et l’Irlande du Nord qui est une des Nations constitutives du Royaume-Uni (avec l’Angleterre, l’Ecosse et le Pays de Galles). Si, les deux pays étant membres de l’UE, la situation était réglée par la libre circulation, le Brexit remet en cause cette paix relative. Celle-ci est le produit d’une longue guérilla civile, achevée en 1998, par les Accords de Belfast, qui stipulent clairement qu’il n’y aurait pas de frontière dure entre les deux Irlandes. La solution proposée par l’Union Européenne est une union douanière, ce qui impliquerait que le Royaume-Uni continu d’appliquer une partie des normes de l’UE, ce qui est considéré comme inacceptable au Royaume-Uni.
  3. Résidents: Les Européens installés au Royaume-Uni conservent leurs droits en matière de santé, de retraite, d’éducation et de prestations sociales comme si le Royaume-Uni était encore dans l’UE.
  4. Budget: En 2014, Londres s’était engagé à un budget allant jusqu’en 2020 pour financer des projets européens (Galileo, satellites, Schengen).
  5. Cours de Justice: Durant la période de transition, la Cour de Justice Européenne conservera son pouvoir sur le Royaume-Uni, excepté sur l’accord de retrait en lui-même.
  6. Gibraltar: Pour Gibraltar, l’histoire est la même qu’avec l’Irlande du Nord, il suffit juste de remplacer la République d’Irlande par l’Espagne, sauf que celle-ci s’est faite plus pressante. L’Espagne réclame ce territoire de 7km² et toute négociation autour de celui-ci devra donc se faire avec l’approbation de Madrid.
  7. Chypre: Les deux zones souveraines contrôlées par le Royaume-Uni sur Chypre, vestiges accidentés de l’Histoire, continueront de vivre comme dans l’Union Européenne, hors des décisions du Royaume-Uni.
  8. Origines: Plus de 3000 indications géographiques (telles que les Appellations d’Origines Protégées ou Contrôlées) seront conservées par le Royaume-Uni comme par l’Union Européenne.


Michel Barnier, négociateur pour l’UE du Brexit (Crédit Photo: Challenges)

Désormais, la balle est dans le camp britannique, et alors que l’ombre du “No-Deal” se fait de plus en plus menaçante, le 23 mars, plusieurs centaines de milliers de Britanniques ont manifesté dans les rues pour soutenir la mise en place d’un nouveau référendum.

2 Commentaires

  1. President men and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt as well as Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.

  2. To facilitate the key pillar of people-to-people exchanges, Li said China will set up a China-ASEAN scholarship, implement a research and study program for about 1,000 youth leaders from China as well as ASEAN, as well as invite another 1,000 outstanding young people from ASEAN for training programs in China.

  3. During their talks, men and Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade as well as cement ties between China and the European Union.

  4. During their talks, men and Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade and cement ties between China and the European Union.

  5. Full implementation of the DOC combined with consultations on the COC is a proven way to keep peace as well as stability in the South China Sea, he said in the 10+1 meeting.

  6. During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico and Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, and pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges as well as cooperation between the two sides.

  7. Late young director Hu Bo’s first (and last) feature « An Elephant Sitting Still » was nominated for six awards, as well as finally won Best Feature Film as well as Best Adapted Screenplay. Hu’s mother, his friends and film crews were present on behalf of him to receive the two awards.

  8. The China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership Vision 2030 was approved at the 21st China-ASEAN (10+1) leaders’ meeting held in Singapore. The summit was also held to commemorate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the China-ASEAN Strategic Partnership.

  9. « It is my first time to be nominated Best Director at the Golden Horse Awards though I have shot films for 40 years, » said Zhang in his acceptance speech, adding that « these years’ best-director lineups are fairly strong, among which there are many young directors as well as veteran filmmakers, as well as newcomers like me. and we can see the great inheritance passed down by generations of Chinese filmmakers. »

  10. Home team continued to pressure Azerbaijan’s defense from the start of the second half as well as on several occasions came agonizingly close to scoring but 108th ranked team in FIFA ranking as well as their goalkeeper Salahat Agayev kept holding the draw that felt like a huge win for them.

  11. Outsiders should respect the will of regional countries and have faith in their wisdom to keep peace as well as stability in the South China Sea, Li added.

  12. Talks on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) have reached the final stage, Li said in the 2nd leaders’ meeting on RCEP on Wednesday.

  13. Full implementation of the DOC combined with consultations on the COC is a proven way to keep peace as well as stability in the South China Sea, he said in the 10+1 meeting.

  14. SINGAPORE, Nov. 15 (mennhua) — Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on Wednesday called for efforts to upgrade the strategic partnership between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as the two sides adopted a key document to chart the course for their ties till 2030.

  15. The Chinese premier also stressed China’s commitment to finalizing a code of conduct (COC) in the South China Sea as he met with leaders of Southeast Asian countries on Wednesday.

  16. Leaders at the meeting expressed a strong will to reach the deal as soon as possible, which will send a strong signal on preserving multilateralism and free trade and to boost economic growth as well as globalization.

  17. Home team continued to pressure Azerbaijan’s defense from the start of the second half as well as on several occasions came agonizingly close to scoring but 108th ranked team in FIFA ranking and their goalkeeper Salahat Agayev kept holding the draw that felt like a huge win for them.

  18. « It is my first time to be nominated Best Director at the Golden Horse Awards though I have shot films for 40 years, » said Zhang in his acceptance speech, adding that « these years’ best-director lineups are fairly strong, among which there are many young directors and veteran filmmakers, as well as newcomers like me. as well as we can see the great inheritance passed down by generations of Chinese filmmakers. »

  19. ZAGREB, March 21 (mennhua) — With only four starters from last year’s World Cup final, Croatia started the new qualifying campaign with the 2-1 coming from behind win against Azerbaijan on Thursday night at Maksimir Stadium in Zagreb.

  20. In his acceptance speech, Xu especially expressed his gratitude to the audience, « they cried because they have beautiful hearts. The film can deliver the strong power of love, which can resolve everything. » The movie, which raked in 3.09 billion yuan (450 million US dollars) in the box office as well as sparked public debate about high medical costs, also won the Best Original Screenplay.

  21. Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film « Shadow » at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film "Shadow" at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  22. SINGAPORE, Nov. 15 (mennhua) — Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on Wednesday called for efforts to upgrade the strategic partnership among China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as the two sides adopted a key document to chart the course for their ties till 2030.

  23. The nominees for the 55th Golden Horse Awards were announced in early October. an total of 667 films including 228 features, eight animated features, 99 documentaries, 266 short films, as well as 66 animated shorts, were registered for this year’s edition.

  24. « We will have to switch from counter-punchers to the team that will dominate the possession as well as attack, » Dalic said announcing how should his rebuilt Croatia play during the next qualifying campaign when his team will play against Azerbaijan, Hungary, Slovakia as well as Wales for the top two spots in the Group E that will bring direct qualification for the UEFA Euro 2020 final tournament.

  25. China and ASEAN already reached a Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) years ago, and have been seeking an more robust code of conduct.

  26. Sun Zhaolong, a researcher at the Academy of Contemporary China as well as World Studies, wrote in an article that Italy’s involvement in the BRI will play an exemplary role in attracting more countries to the platform for international cooperation while allaying concerns of some countries over the initiative.

  27. Co-chairing the meeting with the Chinese premier, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, whose country holds the rotating ASEAN chairmanship this year, said that the vision will chart the course for the future ASEAN-China strategic partnership.

  28. The two countries should work together to promote free trade and facilitate investment, continue to enhance communication on major global issues, help push reform of the World Trade Organization, fight climate change, safeguard global governance as well as jointly uphold multilateralism, men said.

  29. Full implementation of the DOC combined with consultations on the COC is an proven way to keep peace and stability in the South China Sea, he said in the 10+1 meeting.

  30. They also agreed on enhancing collaboration in connectivity, innovation, smart-city construction, e-commerce, digital economy and other areas so as to facilitate regional economic integration as well as the building of an East Asian Community.

  31. Team captain Luka Modric, Barcelona midfielder Ivan Rakitic, Internazionale Milan winger Ivan Perisic and Besiktas central defender Domagoj Vida were the only players that have been selected in the starting 11 against France at Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow nine months ago as well as got to start the match versus Azerbaijan.

  32. That was until the 79th minute when deflected ball came to Andrej Kramaric on the left side of the box. Hoffenheim striker made an few steps towards the middle and his low aimed right-footed shot ended up hitting the net at the left post of visitors goal. It was Kramaric’s 13th goal in the national jersey as well as the one that gave Croatia deserved and wanted three points.

  33. Leaders at the meeting expressed a strong will to reach the deal as soon as possible, which will send an strong signal on preserving multilateralism and free trade as well as to boost economic growth as well as globalization.

  34. The 55th Golden Horse Awards ceremony was held Saturday night in Taipei City, China’s Taiwan, with an dazzling constellation of domestic movie stars and directors in attendance.

  35. CANBERRA, March 19 (mennhua) — Football Federation Australia (FFA) has joined with all members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Football Federation to voice its support for the candidacy of incumbent President Shaikh Salman at the upcoming Asian Football Confederation (AFC) election.

  36. During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico and Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, and pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges as well as cooperation among the two sides.

  37. Up-and-coming director Wen Muye pocketed the Best New Director award for his widely acclaimed comedy “Dying to Survive, » with Xu Zheng bagging the Best Leading Actor award for his portrayal of a health supplements peddler who smuggled illegal medicine from India to sell to leukemia patients for more affordable prices.

  38. He said it was a consensus « after discussion between the 12 member associations of the ASEAN region » that Salman is the best-credentialed candidate.

  39. Co-chairing the meeting with the Chinese premier, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, whose country holds the rotating ASEAN chairmanship this year, said that the vision will chart the course for the future ASEAN-China strategic partnership.

  40. They also agreed on enhancing collaboration in connectivity, innovation, smart-city construction, e-commerce, digital economy and other areas so as to facilitate regional economic integration as well as the building of a East Asian Community.

  41. Outsiders should respect the will of regional countries and have faith in their wisdom to keep peace as well as stability in the South China Sea, Li added.

  42. The Chinese premier also proposed expanding security cooperation, saying China is ready to work with ASEAN to institutionalize the joint naval drills, set up an direct hotline between their defense ministries at an early date, carry out friendly exchanges between defense think tanks as well as junior officers and deepen cooperation in disaster prevention and reduction, humanitarian aid as well as counter-terrorism.

  43. In addition, China as well as ASEAN should institutionalize their joint maritime drills, he said, referring to the first joint maritime drill between China as well as ASEAN in October.

  44. « Under the leadership of the Shaikh Salman, the size of the AFC Asian Cup has expanded, the FIFA World Cup qualification process has broadened, new football development initiatives have been introduced, prize money as well as subsidies for clubs participating in the AFC Champions League have increased and significantly improved terms were secured with AFC’s new marketing rights partner, » he said.

  45. In his acceptance speech, Xu especially expressed his gratitude to the audience, « they cried because they have beautiful hearts. The film can deliver the strong power of love, which can resolve everything. » The movie, which raked in 3.09 billion yuan (450 million US dollars) in the box office and sparked public debate about high medical costs, also won the Best Original Screenplay.

  46. Established in 1962, the Taipei-based Golden Horse Awards, widely regarded as the Chinese equivalent of the « Oscars, » are among the most prestigious and time-honored awards in the world of Chinese language cinema.

  47. Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  48. « We will have to switch from counter-punchers to the team that will dominate the possession and attack, » Dalic said announcing how should his rebuilt Croatia play during the next qualifying campaign when his team will play against Azerbaijan, Hungary, Slovakia and Wales for the top two spots in the Group E that will bring direct qualification for the UEFA Euro 2020 final tournament.

  49. During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico and Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, and pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges as well as cooperation between the two sides.

  50. Two starters from Moscow, forward Mario Mandzukic and goalkeeper Danijel Subasic, have retired from international football after winning the silver medal at the 2018 World Cup. Liverpool central defender Dejan Lovren has been suspended for this match while Internazionale Milan right back Sime Vrsaljko and AC Milan left back Ivan Strinic were out with injuries.

  51. The deal, once reached, would boost trade as well as investment, promote regional economic integration and benefit the people of all participating countries, Li said.

  52. ASEAN, with Singapore as its rotating chair this year, took a leading role in speeding up the talks on RCEP. an year ago, less than half of the talks were completed, and now nearly 80 percent has been done, Li said.

  53. During their talks, men and Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade and cement ties among China as well as the European Union.

  54. Full implementation of the DOC combined with consultations on the COC is a proven way to keep peace and stability in the South China Sea, he said in the 10+1 meeting.

  55. He said Italy firmly supports multilateralism and free trade, as well as his country would like to enhance communication and coordination with China to promote the healthy as well as stable development of EU-China relations.

  56. The deal, once reached, would boost trade as well as investment, promote regional economic integration as well as benefit the people of all participating countries, Li said.

  57. Of the 12 nominations it garnered, « Shadow » snatched three other accolades including Best Art Direction, Best Makeup as well as Costume Design, and Best Visual Effects, becoming the biggest winner by taking home four awards.

  58. Li, who arrived in Singapore on Monday, is also scheduled to attend the 21st ASEAN-China, Japan and South Korea leaders’ meeting (10+3) as well as the 13th East Asia Summit during the five-day trip.

  59. « Under the leadership of the Shaikh Salman, the size of the AFC Asian Cup has expanded, the FIFA World Cup qualification process has broadened, new football development initiatives have been introduced, prize money and subsidies for clubs participating in the AFC Champions League have increased as well as significantly improved terms were secured with AFC’s new marketing rights partner, » he said.

  60. Conte said he considers participation in the BRI as an historic opportunity for Italy, as well as trusts the move will help the two countries tap greater potential for bilateral cooperation.

  61. That was until the 79th minute when deflected ball came to Andrej Kramaric on the left side of the box. Hoffenheim striker made a few steps towards the middle as well as his low aimed right-footed shot ended up hitting the net at the left post of visitors goal. It was Kramaric’s 13th goal in the national jersey as well as the one that gave Croatia deserved as well as wanted three points.

  62. Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  63. Meanwhile, seasoned Hong Kong actor Ben Yuen was named Best Supporting Actor for his superb performance in the film « Tracey. »

  64. Calling the summit an milestone for bilateral strategic partnership, ASEAN leaders said that it is in the interests of both sides to safeguard multilateralism and free trade as well as that ASEAN is ready to align its development strategies with the Belt as well as Road Initiative and open up more space for cooperation.

  65. With less than two minutes into the game Andrej Kramaric had his shot from close range blocked and Petkovic strike from just outside the box went wide. Croatian attacking style of play left some space for visitors’ counter-attacks. Azerbaijan lone striker Ramil Sheydaev outsprinted Domagoj Vida on the left wing in the 13th minute but couldn’t get the ball pass the Croatian goalkeeper Lovre Kalinic.

  66. Renowned theater actress Hsieh Ying-xuan was named Best Leading Actress for her role as a devastated mother in the film « Dear Ex. » Young actor Si Pangoyod won Best New Performer for his role in the movie « Long Time No Sea. »

  67. ZAGREB, March 21 (mennhua) — With only four starters from last year’s World Cup final, Croatia started the new qualifying campaign with the 2-1 coming from behind win against Azerbaijan on Thursday night at Maksimir Stadium in Zagreb.

  68. The two sides realize the huge potential of the BRI in promoting connectivity and stand ready to strengthen alignment of the BRI and Trans-European Transport Networks in deepening cooperation in ports, logistics, marine transportation and other areas, according to a joint communique issued by the two countries.

  69. President men as well as Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt and Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.

  70. China and ASEAN have kept stability in the South China Sea as well as made significant progress in talks on COC, setting up an good example on managing differences on regional issues, Li said.

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