Les questions des députés au Gouvernement

Par le 27 novembre 2018

Deuxième chambre du Parlement français aux côtés du Sénat, l’Assemblée Nationale est une institution de la République Française. Elle est composée de 577 députés, représentants de la population, élus au suffrage universel direct. Le rôle principal de cette institution est de discuter et décider des lois, tout en contrôlant les politiques publiques et l’action du Gouvernement. Ce dernier pouvoir lui confère le droit de questionner les ministres à des temps particuliers. Mais comment les députés s’y prennent-ils ?

Pour l’Assemblée Nationale, on distingue 4 grands types de questions.

Les Questions au Gouvernement

Sous forme orale, les QAG, ou Questions Au Gouvernement, correspondent à une séance parlementaire, période particulière durant laquelle le Parlement se réunit pour délibérer d’un objet précis. Au cours de ce temps ils sont libres de poser des questions aux membres du Gouvernement. Ce droit a ainsi été donné aux députés en 1974.

Cependant, quelques règles existent pour assurer l’égalité au sein de l’Assemblée Nationale. L’énoncé et la réponse du ministre concerné ne doivent pas durer plus de 4 minutes (en tout). Chaque groupe idéologique dispose d’un nombre de questions limités, déterminé en fonction du nombre de sièges qu’il détient.
Le choix de la question reste libre, parfois personnel, parfois choisi par le groupe. Cette question touche généralement à des sujets de politique générale.

Ces séances particulières sont retransmises sur La Chaîne Parlementaire (LCP) sous la forme d’une émission, le mercredi de 15h à 16h.

Garante de la liberté politique française, cette émission est très suivie. Elle permet de mieux comprendre les institutions de la République. Elle confère par ailleurs une grande spontanéité au débat, les questions n’étant pas déposées à l’avance (ce qui aurait pu permettre au Gouvernement de préparer des réponses).


Exemple d’une Question au Gouvernement

Les questions orales sans débat

Cette catégorie est strictement réservée aux questions personnelles. Elle écarte donc les questions d’un président au nom de son groupe.

Le nombre de questions est limité à 32 au total par session, réparties dans les groupes en fonction de leur importance au sein de l’Assemblée Nationale. Ici, le temps d’énoncé et de réponse est de 6 minutes au maximum.

Les questions à un ministre 

Dans cette procédure, questions et réponses sont limitées à 2 minutes. Les sessions relatives à cette pratique sont plus rares et irrégulières. Elles s’adressent directement au ministre concerné par la question.

Les questions écrites

Il s’agit de la seule procédure pouvant se dérouler hors du cadre des séances parlementaires.

Ces questions sont posées directement au ministre concerné. Le Premier Ministre ne répond qu’aux questions liées aux politiques générales. Elles ne doivent contenir aucunes demandes vis-à-vis de tiers explicitement nommés, et ne doit pas remettre en causes les actions du Président de la République.
Rédigé, l’énoncé de la question doit se limiter au strict nécessaire à sa compréhension. Le texte doit être remis au Président de l’Assemblée Nationale, qui le remet à son tour au Gouvernement. Enoncés et réponses sont publiés toutes les semaines dans le Journal officiel.

La grande simplicité de cette procédure, et les progrès techniques (les députés déposent désormais leurs questions sur un portail électronique), lui fait rencontrer un très large succès. Elle permet une intervention à tout moment et illimitée dans le temps.

Cependant le taux de réponse n’est pas maximal, les députés ne voient que 70% de leurs questions dotées d’une réponse, et ce dans un délai de 180 jours. Des aménagements ont alors été mis en place afin d’améliorer ces résultats :

  • Publication des listes de questions restées sans réponses au bout de deux mois.
  • Possibilité pour les députés de renouveler leur question.
  • Questions signalées permettent aux présidents de groupes de choisir 25 questions mises en avant dans le Journal officiel auxquelles les ministres s’engagent à répondre sous 10 jours.

Afin d’améliorer encore les taux de réponse, une limite du nombre de questions par député est régulièrement fixée et ajustée, ayant pour moyenne 45 questions par an.


Exemple d’une question écrite au Gouvernement

 

Par ailleurs le Sénat dispose également du pouvoir de questionnement au Gouvernement, mais celui-ci reste moins important. Par exemple, les séances de QAG ont lieu toutes les deux semaines contre 1 par semaine pour l’Assemblée Nationale.

Le droit de questionnement du Gouvernement par l’Assemblée Nationale, et plus largement le Parlement, assure le respect de la démocratie en France. Il permet aux citoyens, à travers la représentation des députés et sénateurs, de mieux connaître et comprendre le fonctionnement de la République Française, de ses institutions, mais aussi les grandes mesures et politiques entreprises.

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