Les armoiries françaises: une histoire républicaine

Par le 28 septembre 2018

Croix de Lorraine, Faisceau de licteur, Légion d’honneur, Drapeau Tricolore… Vous pensez tout connaître des armoiries de la République ? De leurs histoires ? Vous ignorez ce que sont des armoiries ? Quels sont leurs rôles ? Ou alors cherchez-vous simplement à connaître un peu mieux les symboles qui ornent notre république ? Ou même simplement à comprendre ce que signifie l’ajout par Emmanuel Macron d’une Croix de Lorraine sur les armoiries de la Présidence ? Vous saurez tout cela et bien plus encore sur ces armoiries à l’Histoire si républicaine.

Quelles armoiries ?

C’est assez curieux à dire, mais la République Française n’a pas d’armoiries officielles. Le problème n’est pas une non-reconnaissance de celles que le Président de la République a modifié récemment, mais le fait que celles-ci ne sont en réalité qu’officieuses.

Si l’on s’en tient à l’article 4 de la Constitution de la Cinquième République, la France a une langue, le Français, un emblème national, le drapeau tricolore, un hymne national, la Marseillaise, une devise, Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité et un principe, Gouvernement du peuple, par le peuple, pour le peuple.

Donc en théorie, pas d’armoiries depuis la fin des monarchies (nous ne traiterons pas ici de celles-ci, le sujet étant trop vaste pour rentrer dans le cadre de cet article). Du moins, c’est ce qu’on pourrait croire en lisant la Constitution, la réalité étant elle bien plus complexe. Pour la comprendre, il faut retourner aux balbutiements de la Première République, 1790.

L’apparition des armoiries

1790 donc. L’Assemblée Constituante a besoin d’un symbole de l’unité du peuple français, mais également sa force, et de pour défendre sa liberté.
Un homme de l’antique République Romaine refait alors surface, le licteur. Celui-ci est, en quelque sorte, le garde du corps de ce qu’on appelait à l’époque les magistrats et de ce que l’on appellerait plus simplement les élus aujourd’hui. Et ce fameux licteur protégeait les magistrats avec ce que l’on appelle un faisceau, un assemblage de branches longues et fines enroulées autours d’une hache et maintenues ensemble par des lanières. L’Assemblée venait de trouver un symbole d’unité, de cohésion, de protection et de liberté, l’Histoire du Faisceau de Licteur français venait de commencer.

Ensuite, si la République n’a pas d’armoiries, elle a des sceaux (cachets pour les lettres par exemple). Ainsi, le sceau de la Première République adopte le Faisceau, celui de la Deuxième fait de même et depuis la Deuxième, la République a gardé le même sceau, le Faisceau étant un et indivisible, comme la République.


Sceau de la Deuxième République

La suite de l’Histoire des armoiries, jusqu’en 2018, est intimement liée à la politique étrangère de la France.

Ainsi, en 1913, le Faisceau de Licteur devient l’emblème des postes diplomatiques et consulaires à l’étranger, il est à l’époque composé de chêne et d’olivier, respectivement pour la justice et la paix, et d’un bouclier sur lequel est gravé le monogramme RF pour République Française.


L’emblème officieux de la République française

Quarante ans plus tard, le développement de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pousse la France à trouver des armoiries pour la représenter à l’international (les œuvres sont universelles, pas les alphabets).
Un concours est lancé pour trouver un nouveau symbole et c’est la proposition de Robert Louis qui est retenu avec ce descriptif: « d’azur au faisceau de Licteur posé en pal, sur deux branches de chêne et d’olivier, passées en sautoir, le tout d’or, lié par un ruban du même, chargé de la devise en lettres de sable Liberté-Égalité-Fraternité ». Tout cela encerclé par un collier de la Légion d’honneur du style 1881.

En dehors de ces utilisations diplomatiques, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing fait du Faisceau ses armoiries personnelles (son pavillon).

Au XXIème siècle

L’Histoire de la version actuelle des armoiries de la Présidence de la République remonte à 2010 et est assez opaque. Composée du Faisceau de Licteur et de branches de chênes et d’oliviers, on constate l’apparition d’un bouclier de pelta sur lequel trône le monogramme RF.


Version de l’emblème présentée en 2010

En dehors de ces informations d’ordre purement visuel, on ne peut que constater l’apparition, en 2018 d’une Croix de Lorraine sur les armoiries, semblant sortir du bouclier en pelta. L’explication la plus rationnelle derrière cette ajout est la volonté du Président Emmanuel Macron de rendre à la fois hommage au Général de Gaulle et par lui à la Résistance, mais aussi de se placer dans ses traces.

Version de l’emblème présentée en 2018

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