La différence entre l’Assemblée Nationale et le Sénat

Par le 12 juin 2018

Bien que composant le Parlement français, l’Assemblée Nationale et le Sénat, les deux chambres de celui-ci, présentent de nombreuses différences. Voici dans cet article, un bref explicatif des rôles de ces deux institutions.

Que représentent-ils ?

Un territoire bien défini

Du côté de l’Assemblée Nationale, les 577 députés représentent les 577 circonscriptions dans lesquelles ils sont élus. Les circonscriptions étant des morceaux de territoires englobant en moyenne 100.000 citoyens.


Les 348 sénateurs sont répartis dans les départements, qui correspondent à la limite de leurs circonscriptions. Ainsi, le nombre de sénateurs dépend du nombre de personnes habitant dans le département choisi. Sachant que l’on trouve 12 sénateurs qui représentent les Français établis hors de France.

Une idéologie politique

Enfin, les parlementaires siégeant dans leurs institutions respectives représentent le parti et/ou l’orientation politique de leur choix. Cependant, ils ne sont pas répartis par partis politiques mais par groupes parlementaires.

Ainsi, lors de la 15ème législature, les Républicains sont scindés en deux à l’Assemblée.
Le premier groupe nommé “les Républicains” et composé de 100 députés, s’engage à mener une opposition ferme contre la politique du Président Macron. Tandis que le second, nommé “les Constructifs”, se définit comme macron-compatible et comporte 34 membres.

Les groupes parlementaires correspondent donc plus au reflet de pensées politiques que la représentation des partis politiques du pays.

NB : Pour former un groupe parlementaire, il faut au minimum 15 membres à l’Assemblée contre 10 au Sénat. C’est donc pour ça que l’on trouve aussi des non-inscrits comme les députés du Rassemblement National, qui n’ont pas réussi à regrouper assez de membres pour créer leur propre groupe.

Comment sont-ils élus ?

L’élection des députés

Les 577 députés qui composent l’Assemblée sont élus au suffrage universel direct par l’intermédiaire d’un scrutin uninominal à deux tours organisé tous les 5 ans, quelques mois après les élections présidentielles.

Pour accéder au second tour, les candidats doivent récolter au moins 12.5% des voix dans leurs circonscriptions. Enfin, le candidat élu est celui ayant obtenu le plus grand nombre de voix à l’issue du second vote.

L’élection des sénateurs

Tous les 3 ans, la moitié des 348 sénateurs sont renouvelés au suffrage universel indirect. C’est-à-dire qu’un collège électoral composé d’environ 160.000  “grands électeurs” est appelé à voter pour les futurs sénateurs.

Ce collège est formé de députés, sénateurs mais aussi des conseillers régionaux et départementaux ainsi que des délégués des conseils municipaux. Ceux-ci ont alors le choix entre les candidats qui correspondent à leur circonscription ou département.
Pour pouvoir être candidat, il faut au minimum avoir 24 ans.

 

Quels sont les pouvoirs et les limites des parlementaires ?

Le vote des lois

Pour démarrer, les deux chambres présentent un but commun : voter les lois. En effet, chaque semaine, sont débattus au Parlement des projets de loi, textes écrits par le Gouvernement, ou des propositions de loi, textes écrits par les députés ou sénateurs.
Mais dans le vote des lois, on a tendance à dire que l’Assemblée Nationale fait de la politique tandis que le Sénat fait du droit. Et pour cause, les parlementaires ne s’intéressent pas forcément aux mêmes détails sur les textes à examiner.

Le contrôle du Gouvernement

De plus, le Parlement a comme objectif de contrôler les actions du Gouvernement. Même si l’Assemblée Nationale et le Sénat ne disposent pas des mêmes droits pour réaliser cette tâche. Par exemple, l’Assemblée Nationale peut voter une motion de censure tandis que le Sénat ne le peut pas.

Mais qu'est ce qu'une motion de censure ? Voir

Aussi, le Premier Ministre peut choisir de réaliser devant le Parlement, une déclaration de politique générale, discours durant lequel il présente les grands axes de son programme. Mais en le réalisant, il engage la responsabilité du Gouvernement. C’est-à-dire que cette déclaration est suivie d’un vote des deux chambres, et si l’Assemblée ne vote pas la confiance à la majorité, le Gouvernement est renversé. Cependant, le vote du Sénat, lui, n’est qu’indicatif et n’a pas de valeur juridique.

Que peut faire le Gouvernement en retour ?

Enfin, il est important de noter que le Sénat ne peut pas être dissous par le Président, contrairement à l’Assemblée Nationale. Par exemple, le Président Chirac avait décidé en 1997 de dissoudre l’Assemblée tout comme Charles de Gaulle, qui lui l’a dissoute 2 fois, en octobre 1962 et en mai 1968.

Où siègent-ils ?

Les députés siègent à l’Assemblée Nationale, elle-même située dans le Palais Bourbon. Le tout se trouve sur le Quai d’Orsay. C’est donc ici que l’on retrouve les bureaux des parlementaires et le fameux Hémicycle où a lieu les différents débats.

 

Du côté des sénateurs, ils siègent dans le Palais du Luxembourg, situé dans le 6ème arrondissement de Paris.

 

Petite anecdote en + : Les parlementaires sont placés dans les hémicycles en fonction de leur orientation politique : les élus de droite seront donc à droite, et ceux de gauche à gauche.

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