La 5ème République

Par le 26 décembre 2017

Aujourd’hui on va aborder ensemble le fonctionnement de la Vème République ! Le sujet reste assez simple mais il y a beaucoup de notions à comprendre donc préparez-vous à engendrer beaucoup d’infos !

En France, nous sommes actuellement passés par 5 Républiques, ce qui signifie 5 Constitutions différentes. La Constitution étant le texte fondateur qui définit les lois, et les libertés du peuple, tout comme l’organisation du pouvoir législatif, exécutif et judiciaire, que nous expliquerons plus tard dans l’épisode.

Pourquoi sommes-nous passés à une 5ème République ?

Il faut savoir que la précédente, donc la IVème était un régime très parlementaire, c’est à dire que les députés possédaient la majorité du pouvoir. Ils avaient la capacité de renvoyer et de nommer le gouvernement, donc les différents ministres. Les députés avaient donc du mal à se décider, tout restait figé et rien n’avançait.

L’événement qui va réellement sceller le destin de ce régime reste le début de la révolte algérienne qui cherche à obtenir son indépendance. En effet, avant 1962 il faut savoir que l’Algérie était une terre coloniale française.

La date clé de cette révolte, qui va tout déclencher est le 13 mai 1958. Pour commencer, il s’agit du jour de l’investiture de Pierre Pflimlin, le président du Conseil sous René Coty !
Mais qu’est ce que le Président du Conseil ? Il s’agit tout simplement de notre Premier ministre d’aujourd’hui, mais il avait beaucoup plus de pouvoirs que le Président sous cette 4 ème République !

Pour revenir au fait, cette révolte va engendrer un coup d’Etat envers le bâtiment du gouvernement général d’Alger… Après que les rebelles aient réussi à mettre à terre ce gouvernement général, un Comité de Salut Public est décrété en Algérie avec à sa tête le général Jacques Massu. (Il s’agit d’une sorte de cellule de crise qui vise à préserver la République.)
Le lendemain, donc le 14 mai, Massu lance un appel au général de Gaulle pour qu’il revienne à la tête du pays. Le jour même, le général que tout le monde connaît s’exprime et annonce qu’il est prêt à “assumer les pouvoirs de la République”.

Le gouvernement Pierre Pflimlin, qui n’aura duré que 15 jours, chutera le 28 mai 1958, laissant place au Général de Gaulle en tant que Président du Conseil. Le lendemain, l’Assemblée Nationale vote les pleins pouvoirs à de Gaulle pour une durée de 6 mois mais il est aussi chargé d’écrire une nouvelle Constitution. Cette Constitution est approuvée le 28 septembre 1958 par référendum avec près de 79.2% de OUI. Elle sera ensuite été instaurée le 4 octobre 1958.

Pour finir, de Gaulle est élu Premier Président de la Vème République par un collège électoral.

Présentation de la nouvelle Constitution par Charles de Gaulle. Le 4 septembre 1958, sur la place de la République, il invitait les Français à passer à la 5ème République, par l’intermédiaire d’un référendum.

Quelles sont les différentes institutions de la 5ème République ?

Pouvoir exécutif – Le Président et le Gouvernement

En premier lieu, le Président est élu pour 5 ans, par suffrage universel, c’est à dire que tous les citoyens qui remplissent certains critères (comme l’âge, la nationalité etc) peuvent aller voter. Il faut savoir qu’avant le référendum du 24 septembre 2000, les  présidents effectuaient un mandat de 7 ans. On parlait lors de septennat. Il est aussi le chef des Armées, et il a la possibilité de dissoudre l’Assemblée Nationale, et selon l’article 16 de la Constitution, exercer des pouvoirs exceptionnels en cas de crise grave.

Celui-ci élit aussi le Premier Ministre, et il choisit avec celui-ci la composition du Gouvernement, c’est à dire les différents ministres. Le chef de l’Etat préside aussi le Conseil des Ministres, qui a lieu tous les mercredis.

Ainsi, le Président et le Gouvernement représente le pouvoir exécutif qui veille à la mise en circulation des lois choisies par le pouvoir législatif.

 

Pouvoir législatif – Le Parlement

Maintenant, parlons un peu du Parlement. En France, il est composé de deux chambres, l’Assemblée et le Sénat, qui représente le peuple pour voter les différentes lois et gérer le budget de l’Etat.

Pour commencer, l’Assemblée est constituée de 577 députés, qui représentent leur circonscriptions, une zone de la France regroupant un certains nombres de communes. Ils sont élus pour 5 ans par scrutin uninominal majoritaire à deux tours.

De leur côté, les 348 sénateurs, membres du Sénat, sont élus pour 6 ans par les grands électeurs, formant le collège électoral, ainsi composé de députés, de conseillers généraux et régionaux. Ce collège électoral est d’ailleurs formé à 95% de délégués de conseillers municipaux.

Pour revenir sur l’organisation et le rôle du Parlement, durant 9 mois, ce que l’on appelle une session, les deux chambres vont discuter des projets de loi (proposés par le Gouvernement) ou des propositions de lois (émises par les députés et sénateurs).
Ils vont pouvoir proposer des amendements (des modifications apportées aux projets ou propositions de loi) qui seront alors discutés dans les deux chambre. En cas de désaccords, une commission doit proposer un texte commun. Et en cas d’impossibilité, l’Assemblé Nationale aura le dernier mot.

 

Pouvoir judiciaire

Celui-ci se divise en deux ordres juridiques : le premier est chargé de trancher les litiges entre particuliers, que l’on nomme ordre judiciaire.
Le second, l’ordre administratif est chargé de trancher les litiges opposant l’Administration et les particuliers.

Destitution du Président

Si le Président est condamné, La Haute Cour est l’unique juridiction en mesure de décider de sa destitution, ou non. Celle-ci est composée de l’Assemblée Nationale et du Sénat. Elle est d’ailleurs présidée par le Président de l’Assemblée. La proposition de réunion de la Haute Cour doit être votée à la majorité des deux tiers dans chaque chambre.

Selon l’article 68 de la Constitution, “Le Président de la République ne peut être destitué qu’en cas de manquement à ses devoirs manifestement incompatible avec l’exercice de son mandat.” Ensuite, si cette condition est réunie “elle statue dans un délai d’un mois, à bulletins secrets, sur la destitution. Sa décision est d’effet immédiat.”

Conseil Constitutionnel

Il est composé de 9 membres mais tous les anciens présidents de la République peuvent y siéger.

Ce Conseil veillent à ce que les lois votées par le Parlement respectent les droits fondamentaux inscrits dans la Constitution. Mais son but est aussi de gérer différents éléments durant les différentes élections, notamment de proclamer les résultats à la fin de chaque tour de scrutin.

Enfin, le Conseil vérifie que lors de la mise en oeuvre de l’article 16 de la Constitution, qui donne des pouvoirs spéciaux au Président en cas de crise majeure, les différentes conditions nécessaire à l’application de cet article soient réunies ou encore réunis au bout d’un mois.

 

Schéma bilan

Pour résumer le fonctionnement de la Vème République, voilà un petit schéma récapitulatif !

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "la 5ème République"

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