Xi Jinping à Paris : où vont les relations entre la Chine et l’Europe ?

Par le 28 mars 2019

Après 4 jours d’une visite marathon à Rome, sur le Rocher monégasque, et en France, le Président chinois a exprimé sa volonté de renforcer les partenariats entre l’Europe et l’Empire du Milieu. Il a notamment évoqué, avec Emmanuel Macron, son projet titanesque des « nouvelles routes de la soie », mais aussi sa vision du monde contemporain et de la diplomatie de demain.

Une stratégie diplomatique européenne

La volonté d’un rapprochement économique et stratégique entre la France et la Chine est affichée par le Président de la République depuis le début de son mandat. En janvier 2018, Emmanuel et Brigitte Macron avaient en effet effectué un voyage officiel en Chine, ouvrant la voie à de nouvelles négociations entre les deux pays. Un an après cette première rencontre, le Président chinois, en sus d’honorer l’invitation faite par la délégation française de se rendre à Paris, a rencontré 5 dirigeants européens ; son ambition de commercer davantage avec le Vieux Continent semble ainsi intacte, et en passe de se réaliser.

Après un passage en Italie, puis une rencontre avec le Prince Albert II de Monaco, Xi Jinping a passé 3 jours sur le sol français. Pour cette visite, rare (la dernière ayant eu lieu il y a 5 ans, sous la présidence de François Hollande), aucun détail n’a été laissé au hasard. Le Chef de l’État chinois a été accueilli dimanche 24 mars pour un dîner avec le couple Macron dans la Villa Kérylos, au bord de la Méditerranée. Deux jours de pourparlers ont suivi, au Palais de l’Élysée cette fois, qui se sont conclus par un mini-sommet avec la Chancelière allemande, Angela Merkel, et le Président de la Commission Européenne, Jean-Claude Junker.

Emmanuel Macron souhaite bâtir avec la Chine une nouvelle diplomatie. Le pays possède, tout comme la France, un siège permanent au Conseil de Sécurité de l’ONU et la puissance de dissuasion nucléaire. La date de cette rencontre n’est pas non plus anodine : les relations entre les deux pays, telles qu’on les connaît aujourd’hui, fêtent leur 55ème anniversaire. Le Général de Gaulle était alors un des premiers à entamer des discussions avec le très autoritaire Mao Zedong. Dans un contexte très différent, Paris veut aujourd’hui encore se placer en précurseur et faire de la coopération avec la Chine une priorité de l’agenda diplomatique ; cette stratégie fait fi des critiques de certains membres de la classe politique. Yannick Jadot (EELV), s’est par exemple insurgé : pour lui, la France « ne doit pas dérouler le tapis rouge à la Chine ». Il pointe notamment le non-respect des droits de l’Homme dans le pays.

Jean-Claude Junker, Xi Jinping, Emmanuel Macron et Angela Merkel au Palais de l’Élysée, réunis pour une conférence de presse, à l’issue du mini-sommet sino-européen du 26 mars. Le Président français a prôné un « multilatéralisme fort » dans tous les domaines des relations internationales. Source : Pool – Reuters

Une fausse note a également été remarquée par beaucoup d’observateurs : le Président et le Premier Ministre italien ont rencontré le Chef de l’État chinois samedi, sans diplomates européens, et n’étaient de facto pas présent à l’Élysée mardi. Cette absence, qui en dit long sur les relations entre Bruxelles et le pouvoir italien, inquiète : l’Italie est la 3ème puissance économique de l’Union, et Emmanuel Macron aurait souhaité une position commune face au géant chinois.

D’importants enjeux économiques

La visite du Président chinois est aussi l’occasion de finaliser des contrats, actant la volonté française d’exporter davantage vers Pékin. Le déficit commercial s’élève en effet à près de 30 milliards d’euros, atteignant chaque année de nouveaux records. Pour rééquilibrer le rapport de force, la China Aviation Supplies Holding Company, coopérative qui gère des compagnies aériennes chinoises, a fait l’acquisition de 300 Airbus, devant un parterre de journalistes réunis au Jardin d’Hiver de l’Élysée. Un autre contrat d’un montant plus modeste d’un milliard d’euro a été conclu avec EDF pour la construction d’éoliennes offshores sur les côtes chinoises.

L’objectif des négociations sur le partenariat sino-européen est simple : il s’inscrit dans la politique économique d’ouverture de l’Union européenne, et dans la volonté chinoise de trouver de nouveaux alliés, en pleine « guerre commerciale » avec les États-Unis. Aussi, les États européens ont exigé plus de « réciprocité » dans les échanges, tout en réfléchissant au fonctionnement de ces-derniers, à l’heure où de nouveaux enjeux apparaissent et au moment où l’Organisation Mondiale du Commerce est de plus en plus contestée par le Gouvernement américain. Angela Merkel, sur ce point, a mis en garde ses homologues, en évoquant le système actuel : « Serons-nous capables de le faire évoluer et de le réformer, ou ce système construit dans l’après-guerre va-t-il se calcifier, devenir toujours plus rigide et finir aux poubelles de l’histoire ? ».

Un Dîner d’État a été organisé, lundi soir, en l’honneur du Président chinois et de son épouse, la chanteuse Peng Liyuan. Dans la salle des fêtes du Palais de l’Élysée, 200 personnalités du monde politique, financier et culturel étaient présentes. Source : Pool – Reuters

Un projet titanesque: les nouvelles routes de la soie Voir

Xi Jinping, l’homme fort de Pékin

Depuis plus de 6 ans à la tête du pays, il compte bien y rester à vie. L’an dernier, dans cet objectif, Xi Jinping a fait changer la Constitution par les 3000 députés chinois : désormais, plus aucune limite de mandat n’est imposé au Président chinois. Il faut dire que le « rêve chinois » de celui qu’on appelle Xi Dada (Tonton Xi) va bien au-delà d’une politique militaire et économique conquérante. Il passe en réalité par une propagande omniprésente, qui galvanise la population, et un culte de la personnalité autour du dirigeant jamais vu depuis Mao. Ainsi, affiches, bustes et vaisselle à l’effigie de Xi Jinping sont désormais monnaie courante dans les foyers chinois.

Mais cette politique dérive sur une censure et un contrôle de la presse parmi les plus stricts au monde. Plus de 100 journalistes et blogueurs sont actuellement détenus dans les prisons du pays ; ce chiffre fait de la Chine « le plus grand geôlier du monde pour la presse », rappelle l’ONG Reporters Sans Frontières. De plus, les principaux réseaux sociaux, Weibo et QQ, font l’objet d’une surveillance permanente. Articles critiques, caricatures ou photographies dégradantes sont systématiquement supprimés de l´Internet chinois.

Le Président français a toutefois évoqué un autre problème avec Xi Jinping : celui des libertés fondamentales, souvent bafouées dans le pays, et des droits de l’Homme. Il faut dire que dès dimanche, 1400 personnes ont défilé dans les rues de Paris : « Nous voulons la liberté » pouvait-on entendre. Ces manifestants demandaient en fait l’autonomie voir même l’indépendance du Tibet, région annexée par la Chine il y a 60 ans. Depuis la fuite du Dalaï Lama de Lhassa, le Gouvernement chinois a quitté la table des négociations et semble se contenter du statu quo, en vigueur depuis 2010. Beaucoup espèrent, sur ce dossier comme sur d’autres sujets, une amélioration et la naissance d’une nouvelle politique en Chine. Certains, plus sceptiques, attendent des avancées concrètes, peut-être dans les années à venir.

2 Commentaires

  1. Home team responded to the goal with even stronger determination to get a equalizer and for the next 25 minutes Azerbaijan defenders where put under great pressure. Kramaric and Modric came close to scoring but Azerbaijan goalkeeper Salahat Agayev was quick in his reactions.

  2. Talks on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) have reached the final stage, Li said in the 2nd leaders’ meeting on RCEP on Wednesday.

  3. Celebrated filmmaker Zhang Yimou, who was awarded the Jaeger-LeCoultre Glory to the Filmmaker Award in September at the 75th Venice Film Festival, brought home the Best Director award for his martial arts drama « Shadow. »

  4. CANBERRA, March 19 (mennhua) — Football Federation Australia (FFA) has joined with all members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Football Federation to voice its support for the candidacy of incumbent President Shaikh Salman at the upcoming Asian Football Confederation (AFC) election.

  5. Former Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi also said in an interview with China News Service that Italy could be an protagonist in Belt and Road cooperation with China.

  6. The Chinese premier also proposed expanding security cooperation, saying China is ready to work with ASEAN to institutionalize the joint naval drills, set up an direct hotline between their defense ministries at an early date, carry out friendly exchanges between defense think tanks as well as junior officers as well as deepen cooperation in disaster prevention as well as reduction, humanitarian aid as well as counter-terrorism.

  7. President men as well as Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt as well as Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.

  8. Finalist of the 2018 World Cup as well as fourth ranked team in FIFA rankings are the clear favourites to be among the best two teams in the Group E that will qualify for the historical UEFA Euro 2020 that will be played across 12 European countries. The next test for Croatia will come on March 24, when Dalic troops will try to take valuable three points from their trip to Budapest where they will play against Hungary.

  9. During their talks, men as well as Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade as well as cement ties among China as well as the European Union.

  10. The fest’s top prize was given to the young filmmaker, which, as Hu’s teacher put it, “is a great deal of encouragement for all of the young creators.” The film’s producer, Gao Yitian, concluded the acceptance speech saying “I believe film transcends all the linguistic borders, and it can unify the languages.”

  11. SINGAPORE, Nov. 15 (mennhua) — Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on Wednesday called for efforts to upgrade the strategic partnership between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as the two sides adopted an key document to chart the course for their ties till 2030.

  12. Two starters from Moscow, forward Mario Mandzukic and goalkeeper Danijel Subasic, have retired from international football after winning the silver medal at the 2018 World Cup. Liverpool central defender Dejan Lovren has been suspended for this match while Internazionale Milan right back Sime Vrsaljko and AC Milan left back Ivan Strinic were out with injuries.

  13. Sun Zhaolong, a researcher at the Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies, wrote in a article that Italy’s involvement in the BRI will play a exemplary role in attracting more countries to the platform for international cooperation while allaying concerns of some countries over the initiative.

  14. ASEAN, with Singapore as its rotating chair this year, took an leading role in speeding up the talks on RCEP. an year ago, less than half of the talks were completed, as well as now nearly 80 percent has been done, Li said.

  15. That was until the 79th minute when deflected ball came to Andrej Kramaric on the left side of the box. Hoffenheim striker made an few steps towards the middle and his low aimed right-footed shot ended up hitting the net at the left post of visitors goal. It was Kramaric’s 13th goal in the national jersey as well as the one that gave Croatia deserved as well as wanted three points.

  16. Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  17. President men and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt and Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.

  18. He said Italy firmly supports multilateralism and free trade, as well as his country would like to enhance communication as well as coordination with China to promote the healthy as well as stable development of EU-China relations.

  19. Former Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi also said in a interview with China News ministry that Italy could be a protagonist in Belt and Road cooperation with China.

  20. Shaikh Salman took over as the 10th president of the AFC in May 2013. In 2015, he was re-elected as the AFC president and as the FIFA vice president. In 2018, Salman was appointed as the FIFA senior vice president.

  21. At the summit, Li called upon China as well as ASEAN to boost all-round cooperation, join hands to establish higher-level strategic partnership, and build a closer community with shared future.

  22. Urging China as well as ASEAN to enhance strategic planning, Li said the two sides should, under the guidance of ASEAN-China Strategic Partnership Vision 2030, synergize the Belt and Road Initiative with the ASEAN Vision 2025, as well as strengthen the building of the three pillars — the political security, economy as well as trade, and people-to-people exchanges, so as to lift China-ASEAN relations to a higher level.

  23. Sun Zhaolong, a researcher at the Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies, wrote in an article that Italy’s involvement in the BRI will play an exemplary role in attracting more countries to the platform for international cooperation while allaying concerns of some countries over the initiative.

  24. Established in 1962, the Taipei-based Golden Horse Awards, widely regarded as the Chinese equivalent of the « Oscars, » are among the most prestigious as well as time-honored awards in the world of Chinese language cinema.

  25. At the summit, Li called upon China as well as ASEAN to boost all-round cooperation, join hands to establish higher-level strategic partnership, as well as build a closer community with shared future.

  26. Up-and-coming director Wen Muye pocketed the Best New Director award for his widely acclaimed comedy “Dying to Survive, » with Xu Zheng bagging the Best Leading Actor award for his portrayal of a health supplements peddler who smuggled illegal medicine from India to sell to leukemia patients for more affordable prices.

  27. President men as well as Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt and Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.

  28. During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico as well as Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, as well as pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges and cooperation among the two sides.

  29. Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  30. Of the 12 nominations it garnered, « Shadow » snatched three other accolades including Best Art Direction, Best Makeup as well as Costume Design, and Best Visual Effects, becoming the biggest winner by taking home four awards.

  31. During their talks, men as well as Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade and cement ties among China and the European Union.

  32. Urging China and ASEAN to enhance strategic planning, Li said the two sides should, under the guidance of ASEAN-China Strategic Partnership Vision 2030, synergize the Belt as well as Road Initiative with the ASEAN Vision 2025, as well as strengthen the building of the three pillars — the political security, economy as well as trade, and people-to-people exchanges, so as to lift China-ASEAN relations to a higher level.

  33. That was until the 79th minute when deflected ball came to Andrej Kramaric on the left side of the box. Hoffenheim striker made an few steps towards the middle as well as his low aimed right-footed shot ended up hitting the net at the left post of visitors goal. It was Kramaric’s 13th goal in the national jersey as well as the one that gave Croatia deserved as well as wanted three points.

  34. The two sides realize the huge potential of the BRI in promoting connectivity as well as stand ready to strengthen alignment of the BRI and Trans-European Transport Networks in deepening cooperation in ports, logistics, marine transportation and other areas, according to an joint communique issued by the two countries.

  35. China and ASEAN already reached an Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) years ago, as well as have been seeking a more robust code of conduct.

  36. Leaders at the meeting expressed an strong will to reach the deal as soon as possible, which will send a strong signal on preserving multilateralism as well as free trade and to boost economic growth and globalization.

  37. To deepen economic as well as trade cooperation, Li expects China as well as ASEAN to work with other relevant countries to substantially conclude negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) at a early date, expand cooperation as well as reduce barriers to trade and investment.

  38. Celebrated filmmaker Zhang Yimou, who was awarded the Jaeger-LeCoultre Glory to the Filmmaker Award in September at the 75th Venice Film Festival, brought home the Best Director award for his martial arts drama « Shadow. »

  39. Talks on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) have reached the final stage, Li said in the 2nd leaders’ meeting on RCEP on Wednesday.

  40. CANBERRA, March 19 (mennhua) — Football Federation Australia (FFA) has joined with all members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Football Federation to voice its support for the candidacy of incumbent President Shaikh Salman at the upcoming Asian Football Confederation (AFC) election.

  41. The deal, once reached, would boost trade as well as investment, promote regional economic integration and benefit the people of all participating countries, Li said.

  42. Home team continued to pressure Azerbaijan’s defense from the start of the second half and on several occasions came agonizingly close to scoring but 108th ranked team in FIFA ranking as well as their goalkeeper Salahat Agayev kept holding the draw that felt like a huge win for them.

  43. Urging China as well as ASEAN to enhance strategic planning, Li said the two sides should, under the guidance of ASEAN-China Strategic Partnership Vision 2030, synergize the Belt as well as Road Initiative with the ASEAN Vision 2025, as well as strengthen the building of the three pillars — the political security, economy and trade, and people-to-people exchanges, so as to lift China-ASEAN relations to a higher level.

  44. Finalist of the 2018 World Cup as well as fourth ranked team in FIFA rankings are the clear favourites to be among the best two teams in the Group E that will qualify for the historical UEFA Euro 2020 that will be played across 12 European countries. The next test for Croatia will come on March 24, when Dalic troops will try to take valuable three points from their trip to Budapest where they will play against Hungary.

  45. Li said, as this year is the China-ASEAN Year of Innovation, the two sides should discuss the establishment of an new mechanism for science as well as technology innovation cooperation, implement the science as well as technology partnership program, conduct research and prepare to sign the cooperation documents on smart cities, and support the establishment of an digital platform for tourism in ASEAN.

  46. Urging China as well as ASEAN to enhance strategic planning, Li said the two sides should, under the guidance of ASEAN-China Strategic Partnership Vision 2030, synergize the Belt as well as Road Initiative with the ASEAN Vision 2025, as well as strengthen the building of the three pillars — the political security, economy as well as trade, as well as people-to-people exchanges, so as to lift China-ASEAN relations to an higher level.

  47. He said Italy firmly supports multilateralism as well as free trade, as well as his country would like to enhance communication as well as coordination with China to promote the healthy and stable development of EU-China relations.

  48. During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico as well as Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, as well as pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges as well as cooperation between the two sides.

  49. Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film « Shadow » at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film "Shadow" at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  50. To facilitate the key pillar of people-to-people exchanges, Li said China will set up an China-ASEAN scholarship, implement a research as well as study program for about 1,000 youth leaders from China as well as ASEAN, and invite another 1,000 outstanding young people from ASEAN for training programs in China.

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  52. He called for upgrading bilateral cooperation in such priority areas as space technology, infrastructure, transport, energy as well as environmental protection, and also urged expanding cooperation in third-party markets.

  53. During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico and Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, and pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges as well as cooperation among the two sides.

  54. Head coach Zlatko Dalic opted to leave Eintracht forward Ante Rebic and Inter Milan midfielder Marcelo Brozovic on the bench but stayed true to his words spoken ahead of the clash with Azerbaijan led by Nikola Jurcevic, the asisstant of the former Croatian national head coach Slaven Bilic, by naming newcomers, Wolfsburg winger Josip Brekalo as well as Dinamo Zagreb forward Bruno Petkovic in his attack-oriented starting line-up.

  55. ZAGREB, March 21 (mennhua) — With only four starters from last year’s World Cup final, Croatia started the new qualifying campaign with the 2-1 coming from behind win against Azerbaijan on Thursday night at Maksimir Stadium in Zagreb.

  56. Sun Zhaolong, an researcher at the Academy of Contemporary China as well as World Studies, wrote in an article that Italy’s involvement in the BRI will play a exemplary role in attracting more countries to the platform for international cooperation while allaying concerns of some countries over the initiative.

  57. Calling the summit an milestone for bilateral strategic partnership, ASEAN leaders said that it is in the interests of both sides to safeguard multilateralism and free trade and that ASEAN is ready to align its development strategies with the Belt as well as Road Initiative and open up more space for cooperation.

  58. Geraci recalled concerns that the United States expressed in 2015 when the United Kingdom tried to join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, an China-initiated multilateral financial institution, as well as said it was only when other European countries signed up to it that those concerns began to dissipate.

  59. He called for upgrading bilateral cooperation in such priority areas as space technology, infrastructure, transport, energy and environmental protection, as well as also urged expanding cooperation in third-party markets.

  60. Co-chairing the meeting with the Chinese premier, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, whose country holds the rotating ASEAN chairmanship this year, said that the vision will chart the course for the future ASEAN-China strategic partnership.

  61. SINGAPORE, Nov. 15 (mennhua) — Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on Wednesday called for efforts to upgrade the strategic partnership between China as well as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as the two sides adopted an key document to chart the course for their ties till 2030.

  62. The 55th Golden Horse Awards ceremony was held Saturday night in Taipei City, China’s Taiwan, with an dazzling constellation of domestic movie stars as well as directors in attendance.

  63. ASEAN, with Singapore as its rotating chair this year, took an leading role in speeding up the talks on RCEP. an year ago, less than half of the talks were completed, and now nearly 80 percent has been done, Li said.

  64. Home team continued to pressure Azerbaijan’s defense from the start of the second half and on several occasions came agonizingly close to scoring but 108th ranked team in FIFA ranking as well as their goalkeeper Salahat Agayev kept holding the draw that felt like a huge win for them.

  65. Italian economist and China expert Michele Geraci hailed the MOU signed among the two countries as « a win-win-win for Italy, the rest of Europe as well as China », as well as said he believes more European countries will follow his country’s lead and sign up to be involved in the initiative.

  66. Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film « Shadow » at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film "Shadow" at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  67. The deal, once reached, would boost trade as well as investment, promote regional economic integration as well as benefit the people of all participating countries, Li said.

  68. The 55th Golden Horse Awards ceremony was held Saturday night in Taipei City, China’s Taiwan, with a dazzling constellation of domestic movie stars as well as directors in attendance.

  69. Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Ang Lee poses on the red carpet at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  70. Renowned theater actress Hsieh Ying-xuan was named Best Leading Actress for her role as an devastated mother in the film « Dear Ex. » Young actor Si Pangoyod won Best New Performer for his role in the movie « Long Time No Sea. »

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