Un verdict attendu depuis quarante ans au Cambodge

Par le 24 novembre 2018

Vendredi 16 novembre, un tribunal international parrainé par l’ONU a rendu son verdict sur les exactions du régime des Khmers rouges.

Un verdict attendu depuis de longues années

Ce procès que certains estiment aussi important que celui de Nuremberg après la Seconde Guerre Mondiale (ou celui de l’ex-Yougoslavie), a enfin rendu son verdict : les deux derniers hauts dirigeants Nuon Chea et Khieu Samphan, déjà condamné en 2011 pour « crime contre l’humanité », sont condamnés à la perpétuité pour « génocide ». Ce verdict arrive après quarante années d’attente pour les victimes et leurs descendants.

Nuon Chea (Crédit photo : Mark Peters)

Que s’est-il passé dans les années 1970 dans l’actuel Cambodge ?

Entre 1975 et 1979, la dictature Khmer, dirigée par les Khmers rouges, un régime communiste, a instauré une politique de terreur dans le Kampuchéa démocratique, causant entre un et deux millions de morts.

Durant cette période, de nombreuses minorités, telles que les Vietnamiens du Cambodge, la communauté musulmane des Chams et d’autres groupes religieux, ont été exterminées par les autorités khmers.

C’est donc pour ces crimes que sont condamnés les deux dirigeants, par ailleurs, il faut cependant nuancer le fait que le massacre des Khmers par les Khmers rouges n’entre pas dans la condamnation du « génocide ».

Mais, quels étaient les rôles de ces deux dirigeants ?

Haut dirigeant du régime, Nuon Chea, âgé de 92 ans, était l’idéologue des Khmers rouges, c’est-à-dire, qu’il était chargé de répandre l’idéologie du régime à travers le pays et d’exécuter les ordres donnés par le principal chef du régime. Il était, d’ailleurs, considéré comme le bras droit du chef suprême des Khmers, Pol Pot. Ce dernier n’ayant pu être jugé puisqu’il est mort en 1998 sans jamais avoir été condamné pour ces crimes.

Khieu Samphan (Crédit photo : Mark Peters)

Khieu Samphan, quant à lui, âgé de 87 ans aujourd’hui, a été le chef d’État du Kampuchéa démocratique, nom donné au Cambodge, et était une des figures emblématiques du régime. En fait, il représentait le « visage » du Kampuchéa démocratique.
Lorsqu’il était à la tête du pouvoir, il a incité et justifié les purges par la volonté d’éliminer tous les ennemis du régime. Néanmoins, contrairement à Nuon Chea il n’a pas été jugé coupable sur les crimes à l’encontre des Cham.

Par ailleurs, ce procès devrait être le dernier intenté contre des membres khmers. En effet, le Premier ministre cambodgien, Hun Sen, ancien membre des Khmers rouges, a demandé qu’aucun autre procès n’ait lieu afin de, selon ses dires, garder une unité nationale et éviter les troubles au Cambodge.

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