Sommet de l’Union Européenne : un accord sur l’immigration

Par le 3 juillet 2018

Le 29 juin dernier, les 28 pays de l’Union Européenne ont finalement réussi à signer un accord sur la politique migratoire européenne. Cet accord vient après le scandale de l’Aquarius et du Lifeline.

Retour sur les récents événements

Début juin, l’association SOS Méditerranée était venue en aide à 629 migrants au large des côtes libyennes en affrétant l’Aquarius, un bateau de sauvetage. Après avoir récupéré les migrants, le bateau souhaitait débarquer dans un port maltais. Cependant, les autorités maltaises ont refusé l’accès à leurs ports. Se dirigeant alors vers l’Italie, les rescapés ont également dû faire face au refus du gouvernement italien. Ce n’est qu’après plusieurs jours en mer qu’ils ont finalement pu accoster à Valence, en Espagne, où de nombreux dispositifs avaient été mis en place pour les accueillir.

L’Aquarius (Credit photo : Giovanni ISOLINO)

Quelques jours plus tard, c’était le tour du navire humanitaire Lifeline d’être refusé dans les eaux Italiennes et Maltaises. C’est seulement après un mini sommet entre certains pays de l’Union Européenne que le Lifeline a pu débarquer sur les côtes de La Valette, capitale de Malte. Les 239 migrants qui s’y trouvaient, devraient ainsi être accueilli dans les prochains mois en France et dans 7 autres pays européens.

L’arrivée de ces 2 navires a provoqué de nombreuses tensions au sein de l’UE, c’est la raison pour laquelle s’est tenu le sommet européen à Bruxelles ce 29 juin.

 

Mais alors que contient l’accord ?

Dans un premier temps, les dirigeants souhaiteraient mettre en place des « plateformes de débarquement » hors de l’Union Européenne. Ces centres situés en Afrique du Nord auront pour but de dissuader les migrants de traverser la Méditerranée. Cependant, le Maroc et l’Albanie ont déjà fait savoir leur refus et aucun pays de la région ne s’est proposé pour accueillir de tels centres.

La création de « centres contrôlés » est également un point majeur de cet accord. Ce dispositif s’adresserait aux migrants secourus dans les eaux européennes. Ces derniers seraient pris en charge dans des centres sur le territoire européen, puis une distinction serait faite afin de déterminer l’éligibilité des demandeurs d’asile. Si le demandeur est considéré comme inéligible, celui-ci sera expulsé et renvoyé dans son pays. Ces centres seront néanmoins basés sur la base du volontariat, c’est-à-dire que chaque gouvernement sera en mesure d’accepter ou non la création d’un tel lieu dans son pays.

Les représentants des 28 pays se sont aussi mis d’accord sur les frontières extérieures. Des ressources financières devraient être accordé à l’Agence européenne de gardes-frontières (Frontex) afin d’augmenter ses moyens. Les dirigeants devraient également renforcer leur soutien à la région du Sahel et aux gardes-côtes libyens. D’ailleurs l’accord spécifie que « tous les navires qui opèrent dans la Méditerranée doivent respecter les lois applicables et ne pas faire obstacle aux opérations des garde-côtes libyens. ». Un fond financier devraient être mis en place afin d’alimenter les fonds de l’Union Européenne pour l’Afrique et d’aider les réfugiés en Turquie.

L’accord contient, de plus, une mesure sur les « mouvements secondaires ». Cette notion est en fait la lutte contre les déplacements des migrants entre les pays de l’UE. L’accord stipule par ailleurs que « les États membres devraient prendre toutes les mesures législatives et administratives internes nécessaires pour enrayer ces mouvements et coopérer étroitement à cette fin. »

Enfin, l’accord affirme qu’un consensus doit être trouvé sur le règlement de Dublin. En effet, cette convention confie la responsabilité de traitement des demandes d’asile aux pays de première entrée, tels que l’Italie ou Malte. C’est pourquoi, l’UE souhaite réformer ce règlement afin d’équilibrer le partage des migrants. Mais certains pays s’y opposent fermement.

 

Cependant, cet accord suscite déjà de nombreuses critiques de la part des ONG et de certains politiques européens.

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