Retour sur la procédure de sanction du Parlement européen contre la Hongrie

Par le 26 septembre 2018

Le mardi 11 septembre, les eurodéputés du Parlement européen ont voté à 448 voix pour, 197 contre et 48 abstentions une résolution visant à appliquer les sanctions prévues par l’article 7 du traité de l’UE contre la Hongrie.

Mais qu’est-ce que le Parlement Européen ?

Le Parlement européen représente les citoyens de tous les pays membres, à travers les 751 députés européens. Il partage donc le pouvoir législatif avec le Conseil de l’Union européenne et la Comission européenne. Il s’agit notamment du seul organe élu de l’Union Européenne.

De quoi traite cet article 7 ?

Grâce à l’article 7 du traité sur l’Union européenne (TUE), l’UE est en mesure de sanctionner un État membre lorsqu’il y a « risque clair de violation grave [..] des valeurs » fondatrices de l’association.

Valeurs, ainsi détaillées dans l’article 2 du TUE : « L’Union est fondée sur les valeurs de respect de la dignité humaine, de liberté, de démocratie, d’égalité, de l’État de droit, ainsi que de respect des droits de l’homme, y compris des droits des personnes appartenant à des minorités […] ».

L’article 7 décrit donc la procédure à mettre en place pour appliquer les sanctions nécessaires, si besoin est. Cette procédure peut aller jusqu’à suspendre l’Etat en question de son droit de vote au Conseil, ce qui n’est pas négligeable puisque il sera privé d’un bon nombre de prises de décisions européennes.

Cette procédure très rare a été utilisée une première fois cette année contre la Pologne fin décembre 2017.

Que reproche-t-on à la Hongrie ?

Judith Sergentini sous l'emprise de l'émotion après le vote, saluée de parts et d'autres par les eurodéputés.Judith Sergentini sous l’emprise de l’émotion après le vote, saluée de parts et d’autres par les eurodéputés

C’est la députée écologiste Judith Sargentini qui est à l’origine de cette demande de sanction. En effet, elle a établie une longue liste de valeurs européennes bafouées par la Hongrie parmi lesquelles les multiples violations de la démocratie et des droits de l’Homme depuis l’arrivée au pouvoir de Viktor Orban et de son parti Fidesz, les menaces sur l’indépendance de la justice et médias ou encore des menaces pesées sur les personnes qui tenterait de venir en aide aux migrants.

Le Parlement parle même d’une menace « systémique » que ferait peser le pays sur les valeurs européennes et affirme qu’il « invite le Conseil à constater s’il existe un risque clair de violation grave, par la Hongrie, des valeurs visées à l’article 2 du traité de l’Union européenne et à adresser à la Hongrie des recommandations appropriées à cet égard ».

Cependant, il ne s’agit pas de la dernière étape avant la mise en application de l’article 7 contre la Hongrie. Il reste encore beaucoup de procédures avant que des mesures soient définitivement prises contre le pays.

Les réactions

Les réactions sont vives et partagées autour de cette sanction. Tout d’abord, le ministre des Affaires étrangères, Peter Szijjarto a estimé que le vote n’était «rien de moins qu’une petite vengeance des politiciens pro-immigration» et que «cette décision de condamner la Hongrie et le peuple hongrois a été prise alors que nous, Hongrois, avons prouvé que la migration n’est pas un processus nécessaire et qu’il est possible de stopper l’immigration».

Viktor Orban montrant un document.Viktor Orban montrant un document

La France quant à elle a salué la position du Parlement européen en parlant d’un «signal très fort».

De plus, les eurodéputés qui représentent la France était aussi assez partagés puisque Rachida Dati par exemple s’est abstenu et Nadine Morano a voté contre cette sanction puisqu’elle s’estime être alliée de Viktor Orban.

En Hongrie, une partie du peuple s’estime soulagée que des sanctions soient enfin prises à l’encontre de leur pays alors qu’une autre partie tend à penser qu’il s’agit d’une attaque à la démocratie et à la liberté de vote.

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