Qu’est-ce qu’un député européen ?

Par le 4 décembre 2018

Les prochaines élections européennes auront lieu du 23 au 26 mai 2019. Ces élections permettent aux citoyens de toute l’Europe d’élire les députés européens représentant les 27 États membres de l’Union européenne. Mais, quel est donc le rôle d’un député ? Comment travaille-t-il ? Combien est-il payé ?

Le mandat du député

Le Parlement européen réunit 751 députés élus pour une durée de 5 ans et qui représentent les 27 pays membres de l’Union européenne (sans le Royaume-Uni cette année).
Chaque État membre possède un nombre de députés européens proportionnel à sa population. Par exemple, la France sera représentée par un total de 79 députés à la suite des élections de 2019, récupérant 4 sièges au Royaume-Uni, quittant l’Union.

À savoir qu’une fois dans l’hémicyle, les députés européens sont regroupés selon leur affiliation politique et non pas par nationalité. Les députés ont la liberté d’agir indépendamment de toute consigne extérieure et ils ont le devoir de le faire uniquement dans l’intérêt général.

Aussi, le député européen ne peut pas cumuler son mandat avec une autre fonction dans les institutions européennes. De plus, ce dernier ne peut pas être membre de son gouvernement ou de son parlement national.

Parlement européen de Strasbourg (Crédit : http://www.europarl.europa.eu)

Comment sont-ils élus ?

Les députés européens sont élus au suffrage universel direct par l’intermédiaire d’un scrutin proportionnel à un tour. C’est-à-dire que plus un parti politique remporte de suffrages, plus il obtiendra de sièges au Parlement par la suite. À noter que ce parti doit récolter au minimum 5% des voix.

Cependant, malgré ces points communs, il existe quelques différences dans les modes de scrutin de tous les pays membres de l’UE, notamment sur la méthode de scrutin proportionnel utilisée. Et pour cause, il en existe deux, le scrutin de liste et le système de vote unique transférable. Aussi, on trouve des différences dans les tailles des circonscriptions.

Mais du coup, en France, ça se passe comment ?

En France, est mis en place un scrutin proportionnel de liste. C’est-à-dire que chaque citoyen français vote pour une liste, représentant un parti politique, et plus ce parti obtient de voix, plus il obtiendra de sièges au Parlement.
Les élus sont ensuite choisis en fonction de leur rang dans la liste.

Aussi, concernant la circonscription, il n’y en a qu’une seule, on parle alors de circonscription nationale. De cette manière, tous les votants ont le choix parmi les mêmes listes.

 

Le travail du député

Les députés participent au processus législatif européen. Ils sont amenés à voter les textes de loi proposés par la Commission (branche exécutive de l’Union européenne), qui sont ensuite validés par le Conseil de l’Union européenne.

Le Parlement se prononce également sur le budget de l’Union, les accords internationaux et les élargissements.

Les députés exercent aussi un contrôle démocratique sur les institutions européennes: ils avancent la candidature du Président de la Commission, délibèrent de la politique monétaire avec la Banque centrale européenne, lancent des enquêtes et peuvent même voter une motion de censure, amenant la Commission à démissioner.

 

Comment s’organise leur travail?

Le travail du Parlement consiste en deux phases importantes :

Les travaux en commissions qui se déroulent quatre jours par mois

Le Parlement comporte 20 commissions et 2 sous-commissions qui s’occupent chacune d’un domaine spécifique. Il existe par exemple une commission des affaires économiques, des affaires sociales, étrangères etc.
Les commissions ont pour rôle d’examiner les textes de loi proposés par la Commission européenne et de les modifier. Ils se réunissent à Bruxelles.

Les sessions plénières au sein de l’hémicycle au Parlement à Strastbourg

Tous les députés se réunissent à Strastbourg dans le but de débattre des textes mais surtout pour procéder au vote final, sur leur adoption (ou leur rejet), amendement par amendement. Ils sont ensuite soumis au Conseil de l’UE.

Session plénière au Parlement de Bruxelles, 2011 (Crédit : VIDAL / Commission européenne)

Indemnités versées aux députés

Les députés percoivent ce qui correspond à une indemnité de 4416 euros net par mois pour couvrir les frais généraux (comme les frais de gestion du bureau de député, de téléphone ou encore la maintenance d’équipements informatiques).

En plus de ce salaire, les frais de transport des députés pour assister aux réunions à Bruxelles et à Strasbourg sont remboursés, ainsi que les voyages à l’extérieur de l’État dans lequel ils sont élus.

Enfin, le Parlement verse une indemnité journalière de 313 euros par jour. Cette somme est consacrée aux autres frais des députés pendant des périodes d’activités parlementaires.

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