Prélèvement à la source: ce qui va vraiment changer

Par le 5 octobre 2018

Le 4 septembre dernier, le visage grave et solennel, le Premier Ministre annonçait en direct au 20h de TF1 que oui, le prélèvement à la source entrerait bien en vigueur dès 2019, mettant ainsi fin à des jours d’incertitudes et de rumeurs. Si cette méthode de prélèvement des impôts semble être une formalité pour beaucoup de nos voisins européens, la situation est tout autre en France. Comment sera-t-elle mise en place, qu’est-ce qui va changer à la rentée ? Explications.

Simplifier le quotidien des contribuables

Dès janvier 2019, l’impôt sur le revenu sera donc prélevé directement sur les salaires, avant qu’ils ne soient versés aux travailleurs. C’est ainsi l’entreprise qui devra récolter l’impôt, comme c’est déjà le cas pour les cotisations. En clair, les individus imposables toucheront moins d’argent à la fin du mois, mais cet argent versé ne sera plus imposé comme auparavant. L’impôt sera simplement prélevé plus tôt, et le pouvoir d’achat des Français ne diminuera en aucun cas.

Chaque contribuable devra tout de même remplir sa déclaration de revenus, mais il n’aura plus à se soucier du prélèvement de l’impôt, qui s’effectuera avant la distribution des salaires.

Le grand avantage de cette réforme, c’est la meilleure répartition de la collecte dans le temps. Aujourd’hui, chaque contribuable paye des impôts en fonction de ses revenus de l’année précédente, ce qui pose problème dans le cas d’une brutale diminution de ces derniers. Avec le prélèvement à la source, les ménages payeront en fonction des revenus de l’année en cours. L’impôt s’adaptera donc immédiatement aux changements de vie des contribuables, et non plus avec un an de retard.

Le Premier Ministre sur le plateau de Gilles Bouleau. Source: AFP 

Un impôt, trois taux

Si un contribuable ne souhaite pas que son employeur soit informé de son taux d’imposition, et donc de son niveau de vie, il pourra choisir le taux neutre, fixe, pour que l’employeur n’ait pas d’informations sur sa situation.
Si ce taux est trop élevé, l’État lui remboursera l’argent prélevé en trop. Un couple, lui, peut choisir le taux personnalisé, commun aux deux époux. Mais si l’écart de salaire est trop grand, le taux individualisé est recommandé. Tout dépend si les époux ont un compte en banque commun, ou s’ils séparent leurs revenus dans deux comptes différents.

Quelques zones d’ombre

Pour Les Républicains, il s’agit seulement d’ « une réforme de tuyauterie qui va complexifier la vie des gens ». Et les exemples ne manquent pas.

Tout se complique en effet pour les PME, qui, obligées de prélever l’impôt, devront payer plus cher leurs comptables, et faire face seules à d’éventuels aléas. Ces derniers ne sont pas exclus, et Bercy, lors des phases de tests, a été confronté à des résultats mitigés quant à la fiabilité de la méthode de prélèvement. En effet, si la personne imposée touche des revenus dans plusieurs entreprises, ou si elle travaille à l’étranger, le fisc devra être très vigilant pour éviter les erreurs dans les taux appliqués.

Mais le plus redouté par le gouvernement reste l’impact psychologique qu’aura la réforme, notamment quand les contribuables verront leurs salaires diminuer.

Pour les employés à domicile (femmes de ménage, gardes d’enfant), le système ne s’appliquera pas de cette façon. On imagine mal en effet un particulier déclarer au Trésor le taux d’imposition et le salaire de sa femme de ménage, sans un dispositif pour le guider.

Alors qu’on loue le courage du gouvernement, qui applique cette réforme vieille de 80 ans, ou qu’on critique les importantes modifications qu’elle engendre, le prélèvement à la source s’appliquera bien, en janvier 2019.

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