L’Union européenne et ses institutions

Par le 29 novembre 2018

Dès la fin de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, les peuples européens affichent leur volonté de consolider la paix, et de s’entraider, afin d’éviter de nouvelles crises économiques catastrophiques. Si elle a connu d’autres noms, et des fonctionnements différents, l’Union européenne d’aujourd’hui  se repose sur de nombreuses institutions, avec des pouvoirs bien définis. Une organisation complexe, mais nécessaire pour faire dialoguer et s’entendre 28 États, et plus de 500 millions d’habitants.

Un pouvoir exécutif

Le Conseil Européen

C’est une des institutions les plus médiatisées de l’Union, et pour cause : ce sont les Chefs d’État et des Gouvernements en personne qui y siègent. Au moins quatre fois par an, ils se retrouvent lors de Conseils européens, afin de définir ensemble les grandes perspectives politiques européennes à venir. Dernièrement, c’est le Brexit qui a été au centre des discussions, au même titre que l’immigration, sujet très largement débattu.

L’intérêt du Conseil européen, c’est qu’il permet aux dirigeants de négocier, mais aussi de mieux se connaitre sur un plan plus personnel. Par exemple, les images d’Emmanuel Macron, de Charles Michel (Premier Ministre belge) et d’Angela Merkel  buvant une bière sur la Grande Place de Bruxelles ont fait beaucoup réagir. Ces signes de proximité entre Chefs d’État rassurent quant à la stabilité de l’Europe, et à la solidité de ses institutions.

Dans un cadre plus formel, c’est dans cette salle du nouveau « Bâtiment Europa » que siège les sommets du Conseil Européen. Source: Union Européenne

La Commission européenne

Cette institution, où travaillent en permanence 28 Commissaires, a pour but de proposer aux parlementaires et aux Gouvernements des États membres, des textes de loi et d’actions communes, et cela dans des champs d’actions variées et parfois très spécifiques.

Les Commissaires, depuis Bruxelles, veillent  également au respect des lois en vigueur et du budget. Ils peuvent appliquer des sanctions contre un État qui refuse de se soumettre à ces règles. Récemment, le Budget italien a été rejeté, et s’il n’est pas corrigé, le pays encourt des sanctions économiques. Toutefois, ces menaces de la Commission restent très rares, et des accords sont systématiquement trouvés avant l’application d’éventuelles sanctions.

Le Président de la Commission européenne, Jean-Claude Juncker. Il s’agit d’un des personnages phares de l’Union. Source: Photo News

Un pouvoir législatif

Le Parlement européen

Le Parlement européen est la seule représentation directe des citoyens, puisque tous les 5 ans, les 705 sièges qui le composent sont entièrement renouvelés, à l’occasion des élections européennes. Les prochaines auront lieu en mai 2019, dans toute l’Union.

Le rôle du Parlement est d’établir le budget annuel de l’Union européenne, ainsi que d’adopter ou de modifier les projets de loi faits par la Commission. Il contrôle également l’action du pouvoir exécutif, et peut censurer la Commission européenne. Dans ce cas, elle serait contrainte de démissionner. Depuis 2007, avec la signature du Traité de Lisbonne, les pouvoirs de ce Parlement sont renforcés, et les députés européens peuvent désormais plus facilement présenter des propositions de loi.

L’hémicycle du Parlement Européen, à Strasbourg. Il peut accueillir jusqu’à 1000 députés, en cas d’agrandissement de l’Union.

Le Conseil de l’Union européenne

Ce travail législatif s’effectue avec une autre institution : le Conseil de l’Union européenne, plus souvent simplement appelé: « Conseil ». Bien que plus méconnu, ce dernier à une fonction similaire à celle du Parlement.
Il est néanmoins différent par sa composition. On y croise en effet des ministres, issus des 28 Gouvernements européens, qui étudient les projets en fonction de leurs domaines de compétence.

De nombreuses institutions

Si elles sont parfois moins médiatisées, il existe d’autres institutions européennes, qui s’occupent essentiellement de la justice et de la finance pour toute l’Union.
C’est par exemple le cas de la Banque Centrale européenne, située sur les rives du Main, à Francfort. Son rôle est de définir la politique économique et monétaire de la Zone Euro. Elle gère d’ailleurs la distribution de la monnaie, tout en veillant à la stabilité des prix.

Autre institution de poids: la Cour de Justice de l’Union européenne. Depuis Luxembourg, des juges veillent à l’application du droit européen dans chaque État, et cela de façon identique, quelles que soient les juridictions nationales. Elle peut infliger des amendes aux États, s’ils ne respectent pas ces règles.

De la création de lois communes jusques à leur application, l’Union européenne, grâce à ses institutions, assure une politique étrangère et économique harmonieuse sur le territoire européen, tout en écoutant chaque citoyen.

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