Les 3 particularités du mouvement du 17 novembre 2018

Par le 19 novembre 2018

Émissions spéciales, éditions spéciales, tribune pour, tribune contre, sondages, avis d’experts, avise de journalistes, avis de syndicalistes, avis de politiciens, le mouvement social de ce 17 novembre 2018 aura fait couler beaucoup d’encre (et d’essence). Mais qu’est-ce qui rend le mouvement social du 17 novembre 2018 si particulier ?

La Fronde vient du Web

Une, si ce n’est la plus grande particularité du mouvement du 17 novembre, c’est l’origine de ses contestations, Internet. Si d’autres tentatives avaient eu lieu avant la mobilisation, tel que le mouvement #OnVautMieuxQueÇa apparu au moment de la loi El Khomri, et si Internet avait déjà été le théâtre de véritables mouvements de libération de paroles, tel qu’avec #BalanceTonPorc, le mouvement des Gilets Jaunes est le premier exemple d’un genre tout nouveau de manifestation.

Une information est publiée sur Internet, la grogne monte autour de celui-ci, une personne ou un groupe de personnes a une idée de contestation, et sans préparation aucune, des groupes se forment sur les réseaux sociaux et des mouvements encadrés ni par des syndicats, ni par des partis (même si des récupérations par ceux-ci sont possibles) se lancent spontanément dans des campagnes de sensibilisation (avec des informations aussi justes que possibles) avant de lancer de grandes actions sur l’ensemble du territoire (Internet ignore les distances, alors la colère qui y est véhiculée aussi).

Un mouvement hétéroclyte

Si vous avez suivi les images des différents points d’actions à travers le pays, un phénomène vous a sûrement frappé, il n’y a pas de profil type du manifestant.
Par ce “profil type”, on entend pas un caractère d’ordre purement physique, on parle ici d’un ensemble de personnes réunis par un trait commun, on peut par exemple noter de fortes mobilisations étudiantes lors des manifestations contre la Loi Travail, ou encore de fortes mobilisations de retraités pour la lutte contre la hausse de la CSG. Mais dans ce cas-là, rien.

Ce qui fédérait le mouvement, ce n’était pas l’appartenance commune à un groupe social se sentant lésé ou craignant une détérioration de son avenir, c’était l’opposition commune à la politique du Gouvernement, ce qui rendait leur revendications très disparate. Il était ainsi assez frappant de voir s’entre-mêler des personnes âgées aux routiers, des jeunes à des professeurs…
Cette mixité se retrouve aussi dans la variété des mouvements politiques ayant soutenu le mouvement, qui vont de la France Insoumise au Rassemblement National en passant par Les Républicains. Si les gilets jaunes ont uni les silhouettes, les visages sont restées d’une variété surprenante.

Des Gilets Jaunes (crédit photo: le JSL)

L’itinéraire parisien

Si le mouvement social, dans sa grande diversité, s’est étendu sur tout le pays, un événement a tout particulièrement marqué la journée du 17 novembre, les manifestants ont marché sur l’Elysée. Attention cependant à ne pas confondre les mots.

Les manifestants n’ont pas pénétré à l’intérieur du palais, ils sont parvenus à remonter la rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré et à forcer les CRS à leur bloquer le passage. L’image est très symbolique, le peuple de Paris a tenté de marcher sur le Palais de son dirigeant, son Président. De plus, les manifestants ont remonté les Champs-Elysées, occuper le Périphérique, la place de l’Étoile, de la Concorde (ont donc également menacé l’Assemblée Nationale), un trajet à 3 kilomètres des traditionnelles places de la République et de la Bastille, lieux par excellence des manifestations parisiennes. La manifestation a déambulé et a été contenue au coeur du pouvoir, ce qui ne laissera sans doute pas indifférent le pouvoir.

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