La réforme des retraites proposée par Emmanuel Macron

Par le 16 octobre 2018

« Pour qu’un euro cotisé donne lieu aux mêmes droits pour tous ». Cette phrase, à moult fois reprise par Emmanuel Macron traduit le thème que souhaite décerner le président de la République à la réforme des retraites.

Le système de retraite français, mais qu’est-ce que c’est ?

En France, elle est définie par le fait que des actifs, des personnes qui travaillent, payent par l’intermédiaire de cotisations, les pensions versées aux retraités.

Pour le montant de la pension, il se calcule en fonction du nombre de trimestres cotisés. Ainsi, si ce nombre correspond à celui demandé, alors la pension correspondra à la moyenne des 25 meilleures années de salaire multipliée par 50%.

Aussi, en Europe, la France reste un des pays qui consacre le plus de dépenses publiques dans ses retraites avec la Grèce et l’Italie notamment. Ces retraites représentent donc près de 14% du PIB. Ainsi, le niveau moyen des retraités français est assez élevé malgré des disparités entre les professions.

Dépenses publiques de retraite, de 2007 à 2060, en pourcentage du PIB. Source : OCDE

Le fait que l’État consacre autant de dépenses sur le sujet a fait, qu’au fil des années, la caisse des retraites s’est souvent retrouvée déficitaire, entre les années 1970 et 2000 par exemple, et cette situation s’est notamment aggravée avec la crise des subprimes de 2008.
Cependant, depuis 2016, elle est désormais excédentaire (inverse de déficitaire).

Que propose le Président de la République ?

La réforme des retraites est une des mesures phares d’Emmanuel Macron. En effet, pour lui il s’agit de créer un système de retraite unique, alors qu’aujourd’hui, il varie en fonction du milieu professionnel de l’actif. Aussi, il souhaite uniformiser les règles de calcul des pensions en supprimant la prise en compte du trimestre cotisé.

Le maître des horloges propose à la place, un système par point, c’est-à-dire que plus les actifs cotisent, plus elles obtiennent de points, qui définiront à leur tour, le montant de leur pension lors de leur départ à la retraite.

Jean-Paul Delevoye, le Haut-Commissaire du Gouvernement, déclara au micro de France Inter : « Il faut changer ce système. Il n’est pas adapté au futur car personne ne sait comment le monde professionnel et économique va évoluer. Il faut embarquer toute la société et de manière intergénérationnelle. Il faut aider les carrières en rupture. Le système à points fait qu’on n’aura pas de droits perdus ».

L’âge minimum du départ à la retraite resterait tout de même à 62 ans, même si les travailleurs seront invités à travailler plus longtemps.

Emmanuel Macron et Jean-Paul Delovoye durant la campagne présidentielle de 2017. Source : Libération

Cette ébauche de réforme a été assez bien accueillie par le patronat et les syndicats à l’instar de la FO, la CFTC ou encore la CFDR. Cependant, pour la CGT, cette mesure risquerait d’aggraver les inégalités.

Néanmoins, ce projet n’est qu’un avant-projet puisqu’il est censé être discuté en Conseil des Ministres avant l’été 2019 afin que les parlementaires puissent le voter durant ce même été. Son entrée en vigueur est prévue pour 2025 ce qui laisse encore le temps pour quelques modifications.

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