La Corée du Nord, le territoire aux tensions multiples

Par le 24 mars 2018

Au cœur des discussions actuelles, la Corée du Nord est un territoire aux mille controverses, mais peu savent réellement ce qu’est cet Etat au statut si particulier.

 

Longtemps sous une domination japonaise mal vécue, le territoire coréen est libéré à la fin de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale par les forces alliées. C’est alors qu’apparaît la frontière entre Sud et Nord, laissant la partie Nord du pays d’origine à l’URSS, et le Sud aux Etats-Unis. Chacun mène alors son nouvel Etat, à travers des représentants désignés, selon sa propre idéologie, à savoir respectivement le communisme et le nationalisme anti-communiste. Cette division est source des premières tensions de la Guerre Froide (1947-1991). En effet, l’Union Soviétique souhaite étendre son idéologie aux nouvelles terres conquises à tout prix, sans respecter les accords de Yalta qui imposaient l’organisation d’élections libres. De son côté, la superpuissance américaine met en place différents moyens pour empêcher cette avancée ennemie. Cependant, aucune forme d’affrontement armé n’est encore envisagée dans cette région du monde. Seules les populations locales, souffrant depuis des siècles des contraintes de l’occupation étrangère, souhaitent la réunification.

La séparation entre les deux Etats suit la ligne du 38ème parallèle

Ce n’est que le 25 juin 1950 que le conflit est réellement déclaré, suite à l’invasion de la Corée du Sud par la Corée du Nord. Etant alors absente de l’ONU, l’URSS ne peut exercer son droit de véto pour empêcher les Etats-Unis de faire voter une coalition contre les soviétiques. Une armée se dirige alors vers le territoire nouvellement en guerre. Celle-ci s’avère particulièrement violente, avec le recours à l’arme nucléaire et la mort de 3 millions de personnes. Certains parlerons même de Troisième Guerre Mondiale.

En 1953, le conflit prend fin à la mort de Staline, grand dirigeant soviétique, et de Eisenhower, alors Président des Etats-Unis. L’armistice est donc signé le 27 juin 1953, sur la ligne séparant les deux Etats, lieu même où le conflit avait commencé. Cependant la situation reste confuse, renforcée notamment par l’absence de traité de paix plus de 60 ans plus tard.

 

Un régime autoritaire se met alors en place en Corée du Sud, mais le Président abusant alors de ses pouvoirs est stoppé dans son avancée à l’encontre des droits de l’homme et forcé de démissionner.

Au Nord, malgré l’armistice récemment signé, l’Union Soviétique maintient l’armement du territoire et fourni de grands efforts dans la recherche militaire, jusqu’à pouvoir prétendre posséder l’arme nucléaire en 2003. Plusieurs essais militaires sont réalisés, le plus récent remontant à septembre 2017. Les tensions inter-étatiques ne tombent alors jamais, et seule une famille se transmet le pouvoir, jusqu’à l’actuel dirigeant Kim Jong-un, dictateur depuis 2012, fortement soutenu par une propagande puissante et dont le régime se caractérise par un irrespect de nombreux droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen, se coupant du monde. Par exemple, Internet est interdit d’accès, le survol du territoire par des compagnies étrangères est interdit ou encore l’information est contrôlée.

 

Alors que le monde se ligue contre la Corée du Nord, celle-ci continue son ascension et menace de plus en plus la Corée du Sud, le Japon mais aussi les Etats-Unis. De nombreuses crises diplomatiques naissent alors, et le monde assiste à une escalade de la violence et des menaces entre le Président Trump et Kim Jong-un.

Cependant, cette crise diplomatique mondiale subit un ralentissement grâce aux Jeux Olympiques d’Hiver de 2018, s’étant déroulés en Corée du Sud, au cours desquels Corée du Nord et Etats-Unis cohabitèrent sans difficultés. Par ailleurs, les deux dirigeants de ces Etats ont accepté, à la surprise du monde entier alors tourné vers eux, de se rencontrer au printemps 2018. Des longues négociations s’ensuivraient alors, notamment liées à la dénucléarisation du territoire asiatique.

 

L’attention internationale est donc désormais tournée vers ces deux géants. Le conflit n’aura-t-il été que verbal, ou les négociations entre les deux chefs d’Etat déboucheront-elles sur un conflit armé, qui, au vu des moyens militaires des deux ennemis, pourrait s’avérer d’une violence extrême ?

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