La 73ème Assemblée Générale de l’ONU

Par le 1 octobre 2018

La semaine dernière, les chefs d’État du monde entier ont eu l’occasion de débattre des grandes problématiques du monde, dans le cadre de l’Assemblée Générale de l’ONU. Multilatéralisme, discours d’Emmanuel Macron et de Donald Trump, retour sur la réunion annuelle des dirigeants de notre planète.

Qu’est-ce que l’ONU ?

L’Organisation des Nations Unies a été créée à l’issue de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le 24 octobre 1945. Elle a pour but réunir tous les pays du monde, ou presque, enfin de coopérer sur des sujet mondiaux tels que le droit international, les droits de l’Homme, le développement économique et social etc.

Elle a donc comme finalité d’instaurer une paix pérenne dans le monde. 

Il s’agit de l’organisation mondiale la plus importante au monde et elle a différents organes spécialisées dans des matières tels que l’UNESCO, l’ONUSIDA ou encore l’UNICEF. Son siège se trouve à New York.

A ce jour, l’ONU a permis de réaliser d’importants progrès tels que l’adoption de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’uomme, elle a aussi participé à la construction européenne et agit souvent dans les zones en guerre afin de négocier des cessez-le-feu.

Photo de l’ONU et de ses membres lors de ses débuts.

Une Assemblée générale, pourquoi faire ?

Chaque année, au mois de septembre, les plus hauts dirigeants du monde se réunissent au siège des Nations Unies afin de discuter et ainsi d’échanger leurs points de vue sur les différentes questions sociétales qui traversent notre époque.
L’Assemblée générale 2018, qui a duré toute la semaine du 24 septembre, est la 73ème et les sujets évoqués étaient, entre autres, liés au changement climatique, la paix et la sécurité, les droits de l’homme ou encore l’égalité des sexes.

Salle de l’Assemblée générale de l’ONU. Source : Wikipédia

Quels sont les objectifs de cette année ?

Cependant, cette année le principal débat concernait le multilatéralisme (système qui privilégie les échanges et les négociations entre les pays). C’est le Président élu qui a choisi thème dont l’intitulé exacte est « faire en sorte que l’ONU soit pertinente pour tous : leadership mondial et responsabilités partagées pour des sociétés pacifiques, équitables et durables », après consultation du Secrétaire général et des Etats membres. 

Il convient d’affirmer que ce thème n’a pas été choisi par hasard. En effet, aujourd’hui le monde doit faire face à la hausse des gouvernements nationalistes et populistes, prônant un repli et un fort isolationnisme (isolement d’un pays des affaires internationales) que ce soit en Europe ou même en Amérique avec l’illustre Donald Trump. 

Vladimir Poutine, Xi Jinping et Narenda Modi, respectivement chef d’États de la Russie, de la Chine et de l’Inde, ont tout trois décidé de ne pas se rendre à l’Assemblée, fait illustrant la tension présente. 

Antonio Guterres, Secrétaire général, a même déclaré « par ces temps de fragmentation et de polarisation, le monde a besoin de cette assemblée pour montrer la valeur de la coopération internationale ».

Le pays hôte étant le premier à prendre la parole, c’est Donald Trump qui a commencé en défendant l’idée selon laquelle le multilatéraisme est associée au globalisme et qu’il provoque la négation de la souveraineté de l’Etat

Quel est le point de vue adopté par la France ?

Rencontre entre Macron et Trump avant leurs discours respectifs. Source : RFI

Un peu plus tard, Emmanuel Macron est monté sur l’estrade, plus que jamais prêt à défendre ses idées. En effet, il commence par dénoncer « la loi du plus fort » que Donald Trump cherche à instaurer. « Cette voie, celle de l’unilatéralisme, nous conduit directement au repli et au conflit, à la confrontation généralisée de tous contre tous, au détriment de chacun ». Il a longuement répondu aux points évoqués lors du discours de Trump en affirmant par exemple que l’ONU est aujourd’hui en danger face aux égoïsmes nationalistes : « L’ONU pourrait finir comme la SDN qui l’avait précédée, c’est-à-dire comme un symbole d’impuissance ». De plus, pour lui, « les responsables sont ici », tout en s’incluant dedans.

La situation est donc grave puisque « nous vivons une crise profonde de l’ordre international libéral westphalien que nous avons connu, parce qu’il a échoué pour partie à réguler ses propres dérives financières, sociales, climatiques, qui n’ont pas trouvé de réponse à la hauteur », toujours selon ses mots. 

En outre, comparant la situation à notamment celle des années 30, là où les populistes ou nationalismes étaient très présents il poursuit, « n’oubliez jamais que les génocides étaient nourris par les discours auxquels nous nous habituons, parce qu’ils étaient nourris par les succès d’estrade que nous applaudissons». 

De plus, à la fin de cette journée d’échange, lorsque l’on demande à Macron ce qu’il pense de ces nouveaux populismes, il n’hésite pas à parler « d’extrême », de gouvernements décomplexés de valeur, et que pour eux, la coopération internationale les contraint dans leurs actions de repli. 

Le Président de la République durant son discours. 

Enfin, sur une note plus légère, Macron a obtenu le titre de « champion de la Terre » grâce notamment à son action concernant suite à la COP21 à Paris. 

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