De l’éducation à la sexualité à l’école ?

Par le 14 septembre 2018

Cet été, Marlène Schiappa, la secrétaire d’État chargée de l’égalité homme – femme, a annoncé vouloir instaurer des cours d’éducation sexuelle aux jeunes à partir de la rentrée 2018. Retour sur ce qu’elle souhaite proposer.

Historique de l’éducation sexuelle en France

C’est à la date du 23 juillet 1973 que la circulaire Fontanet fut consacrée et venait affirmer que les cours d’éducation sexuelle relevaient officiellement de l’Education nationale.
Joseph Fontanet déclarera d’ailleurs à ce propos : “Il a longtemps été admis que les éducateurs devaient tenir les enfants à l’écart des problèmes de l’âge adulte, et plus spécialement à l’égard de ceux qui concernent la sexualité. Mais les fables racontées aux plus petits et le silence opposé aux plus grands paraissent aujourd’hui chargées d’inconvénients très lourds, du double point de vue de l’évolution psychologique et de la relation de l’adolescent à l’adulte”. « La nécessité s’impose donc de substituer à une formule dépassée d’éducation protectrice une formule nouvelle, reposant, d’une part, sur la maîtrise de l’information et, d’autre part, sur l’éveil de la responsabilité . C’est dans cette double perspective que l’école, en association avec les familles, peut contribuer à prémunir les jeunes contre les dangers de l’ignorance et à les aider à accéder à un comportement responsable ».
Cette circulaire sera le premier texte juridique qui introduira l’éducation sexuelle. Ces cours étaient ainsi liés à l’évolution du monde médical et enseignés afin d’apprendre aux jeunes l’hygiène conjugale, de les éduquer au mariage mais aussi d’introduire la planification des naissances.

Plus tardivement, ce fut Ségolène Royal et Jack Lang qui s’attardèrent sur ce sujet sensible et par la même occasion nommèrent ce cours « éducation sexuelle et de la vie affective ».

Néanmoins, c’est en 2001 que l’éducation sexuelle obtient valeur législative puisqu’elle fut consacrée dans l’article L.312-16 du code de l’éducation qui stipule « [qu’une] information et une éducation à la sexualité sont dispensées dans les écoles, les collèges et les lycées, à raison d’au moins 3 séances annuelles et par groupe d’âge homogène ».
En 2003, les recteurs d’académie furent informés par une circulaire de la mise en place de ces cours, mais elle ne sera au final, pas réellement appliquée.

Mais que contiendront exactement ces cours ?

Ces cours ne sont donc pas une création de Marlène Schiappa comme beaucoup tendent à le penser, mais une application de la loi de 2001 traitée plus haut. En effet, celle-ci déclare : « Je pense que l’éducation c’est primordial. À partir de la rentrée avec Jean-Michel Blanquer, nous allons envoyer une circulaire à tous les recteurs de France pour qu’ils mettent en œuvre, une loi qui existe déjà et qui n’est pas mise en œuvre. »

L’Éducation nationale affirme très clairement ses objectifs : « Cette éducation à la sexualité ne se substitue pas à la responsabilité des parents et des familles. Afin de permettre aux élèves d’opérer des choix libres et responsables, il s’agit de travailler avec les élèves dans une démarche fondée sur la confiance dans leurs capacités, visant à développer l’estime de soi et l’aptitude à faire des choix personnels. »

Ces cours, très controversés ont d’abord pour objectif d’inculquer aux jeunes une « attitude responsable individuelle et sociale » et doit les informer quant aux changements liés à la puberté. Pour cela, 3 séances sont étalées dans l’année. Néanmoins, tout cela n’est que théorique puisque 25% des écoles élémentaires, 4% des collèges et 11% des lycées affirment n’avoir mis en place aucun dispositif afin d’enseigner ces leçons.

La secrétaire d’État précise quant à elle vouloir faire en sorte que ces cours soient réellement instaurés et dispensés de façon régulière. Ce sont alors des professeurs formés et volontaires qui devront s’occuper de la mise en place de ces cours, à l’instar des CPE, des professeurs de sciences etc. Néanmoins, ils pourront être aidés par des « IMS », des intervenants en milieux scolaires ou encore des organismes et associations ad-hoc reconnus par l’Etat.

Ces séances devront être adaptées au niveau de scolarité des jeunes. Ils traiteront alors de la contraception, de la protection quant aux infections sexuellement transmissibles, de la lutte contre les préjugés sexistes ou homophobes, sur le consentement, sur le respect d’autrui, les rapports entre les hommes et les femmes et notamment initier les élèves au consentement.

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