Qu’est-ce que le référendum d’initiative partagée ?

Par le 28 janvier 2019

“Un référendum portant sur un objet mentionné au premier alinéa [l’organisation des pouvoirs publics, sur des réformes relatives à la politique économique, sociale ou environnementale de la nation et aux services publics] peut être organisé à l’initiative d’un cinquième des membres du Parlement, soutenue par un dixième des électeurs inscrits sur les listes électorales. Cette initiative prend la forme d’une proposition de loi et ne peut avoir pour objet l’abrogation d’une disposition législative promulguée depuis moins d’un an.”

Ce que vous venez de lire, c’est l’alinéa 3 de l’article 11 de la Constitution de la Cinquième République française, ajouté à la Constitution en 2008 par ce que l’on appelle communément la “révision constitutionnelle de 2008”. Cette révision est notamment connue pour avoir mis en place ce que l’on appelle le référendum d’initiative partagée. En ces temps sociaux où les “Gilets jaunes” réclament un “référendum d’initiative citoyenne”, il convient de se demander ce qu’est ce référendum d’initiative partagée et pourquoi il est critiqué par une partie de la population.

Une histoire atypique

Le référendum d’initiative partagée, comme dit plus haut, est apparu lors de la révision constitutionnelle de 2008, sauf… qu’il n’était pas prévu ! En effet, le projet, soutenu par la gauche et proposé par la droite, s’est glissé lors de discussions sur le rééquilibrage des institutions de la Cinquième République qui portaient sur le Parlement. À l’époque appelé “référendum d’initiative populaire”, il faut attendre 2013 pour que des lois encadrent sa pratique, permettant donc de l’utiliser. Cependant, au 1er Janvier 2019, jamais aucun référendum d’initiative populaire n’a été voté.

Edouard Balladur, le père du référendum d’initiative Partagée (Crédit photo: Le Figaro)

Son Fonctionnement

Comment lancer un référendum d’initiative partagée ? Il suffit de recourir aux cinq étapes suivantes:

  1. Un cinquième des parlementaires (185 députés et/ou sénateurs) dépose la proposition de référendum sous forme de loi, appelée “loi référendaire”.
  2. Le Conseil Constitutionnel (Institution chargée du respect de la Constitution) vérifie que le projet de référendum a bien été déposé par au moins 185 parlementaires, que la proposition porte bien sur les thèmes définis par l’article 11 évoqués plus haut, que ceux-ci ont bien une incidence sur le fonctionnement des institutions françaises, que ce référendum n’a pas pour objectif l’abrogation (la suppression) d’une loi votée il y a moins d’un an et qu’il ne porte pas sur le même sujet qu’une proposition de loi rejetée par référendum il y a moins de deux ans. A cela s’ajoute, bien sûr, la vérification de la constitutionnalité du texte.
  3. Le Ministère de l’Intérieur lance le recueil (numérique) de soutiens du référendum. Il faut qu’au moins un dixième des électeurs inscrits sur liste électorale (personne ayant fait les démarches pour avoir une carte électorale) soutiennent le projet.
  4. Au bout de 9 mois de recueils de soutien, le Conseil constitutionnel vérifie si le seuil de 10% des électeurs ayant une carte électorale a bien été atteint.
  5. Si la proposition de loi n’a pas été examinée au moins une fois par chacune des deux chambres (Assemblée nationale et Sénat) dans un délai de six mois, le Président de la République la soumet au référendum.

Si toutes ces étapes sont respectées, le référendum d’initiative partagée peut-être soumis aux Français qui peuvent faire le choix d’adopter ou de rejeter la réforme.

Ses Critiques

Le problème se divisent en plusieurs branches distinctes. Viennent d’abord les reproches de 2008 critiquant un référendum qui, pour l’époque, semblait être la chasse gardée du PS et de l’UMP. Et pour cause, seuls ses deux partis pouvaient aligner 185 parlementaires pour proposer le référendum.

Ensuite, les critiques de la “course d’obstacle” qu’il faut franchir pour simplement proposer le référendum aux Français. La procédure en cinq étapes exprimées au dessus prend plus d’une année, ce qui fait que le référendum d’initiative populaire est plus un effet d’annonce qu’une réelle disposition politique.

Enfin, c’est la complexité de sa mise en place qui provoque les critiques actuelles. Déjà dénoncées par François Hollande, le temps qui s’écoule entre la proposition de référendum et son application potentielle, ses aller-retours au Conseil constitutionnel et la restrictivité des thèmes abordés seraient en fait un moyen de stopper l’élan démocratique qu’il engendre, et donc de n’en faire qu’une vitrine de démocratie, pas de la démocratie véritable.

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  2. The two sides realize the huge potential of the BRI in promoting connectivity and stand ready to strengthen alignment of the BRI as well as Trans-European Transport Networks in deepening cooperation in ports, logistics, marine transportation and other areas, according to an joint communique issued by the two countries.

  3. Shaikh Salman took over as the 10th president of the AFC in May 2013. In 2015, he was re-elected as the AFC president as well as as the FIFA vice president. In 2018, Salman was appointed as the FIFA senior vice president.

  4. Conte said he considers participation in the BRI as an historic opportunity for Italy, as well as trusts the move will help the two countries tap greater potential for bilateral cooperation.

  5. Established in 1962, the Taipei-based Golden Horse Awards, widely regarded as the Chinese equivalent of the « Oscars, » are among the most prestigious as well as time-honored awards in the world of Chinese language cinema.

  6. Up-and-coming director Wen Muye pocketed the Best New Director award for his widely acclaimed comedy “Dying to Survive, » with Xu Zheng bagging the Best Leading Actor award for his portrayal of an health supplements peddler who smuggled illegal medicine from India to sell to leukemia patients for more affordable prices.

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  8. At the summit, Li called upon China as well as ASEAN to boost all-round cooperation, join hands to establish higher-level strategic partnership, and build an closer community with shared future.

  9. The Chinese premier also proposed expanding security cooperation, saying China is ready to work with ASEAN to institutionalize the joint naval drills, set up a direct hotline among their defense ministries at an early date, carry out friendly exchanges between defense think tanks and junior officers and deepen cooperation in disaster prevention as well as reduction, humanitarian aid as well as counter-terrorism.

  10. Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film « Shadow » at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film "Shadow" at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  11. « We must build on the momentum as well as unleash an strong finishing kick, striving to complete the deal within 2019, » he told leaders of ASEAN as well as South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and India in the meeting.

  12. Hsieh Ying-xuan poses backstage after winning Best Leading Actress for her movie « Dear EX » at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Hsieh Ying-xuan poses backstage after winning Best Leading Actress for her movie "Dear EX" at the 55th Golden Horse Awards, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  13. Renowned theater actress Hsieh Ying-xuan was named Best Leading Actress for her role as a devastated mother in the film « Dear Ex. » Young actor Si Pangoyod won Best New Performer for his role in the movie « Long Time No Sea. »

  14. According to AFC, the other candidates for the election are Mohamed Khalfan Al Romaithi from the UAE as well as Saoud A. Aziz an Al-Mohannadi from Qatar.

  15. The prime minister said he plans to attend the second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, which will be held in Beijing next month.

  16. Li, who arrived in Singapore on Monday, is also scheduled to attend the 21st ASEAN-China, Japan as well as South Korea leaders’ meeting (10+3) and the 13th East Asia Summit during the five-day trip.

  17. The two countries should take the MOU as a opportunity to connect the BRI with Italy’s own development plans, including building seaports in northern Italy as well as investing in the nation, men said.

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  19. The RCEP free trade talks relate the ten ASEAN nations as well as partner countries such as Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand. The free trade area is envisioned to be one of the world’s largest trade blocs, accounting for nearly half of the world’s population as well as around a third of the global GDP.

  20. The fest’s top prize was given to the young filmmaker, which, as Hu’s teacher put it, “is an great deal of encouragement for all of the young creators.” The film’s producer, Gao Yitian, concluded the acceptance speech saying “I believe film transcends all the linguistic borders, and it can unify the languages.”

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  22. Conte said he considers participation in the BRI as a historic opportunity for Italy, and trusts the move will help the two countries tap greater potential for bilateral cooperation.

  23. Leaders at the meeting expressed an strong will to reach the deal as soon as possible, which will send a strong signal on preserving multilateralism as well as free trade as well as to boost economic growth and globalization.

  24. Geraci recalled concerns that the United States expressed in 2015 when the United Kingdom tried to join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, an China-initiated multilateral financial institution, and said it was only when other European countries signed up to it that those concerns began to dissipate.

  25. Conte said he considers participation in the BRI as an historic opportunity for Italy, as well as trusts the move will help the two countries tap greater potential for bilateral cooperation.

  26. Co-chairing the meeting with the Chinese premier, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, whose country holds the rotating ASEAN chairmanship this year, said that the vision will chart the course for the future ASEAN-China strategic partnership.

  27. Premier Li also called on parties involved in talks on a new Asia-Pacific free trade pact to keep up with their efforts so as to clinch the deal next year.

  28. During his Italy visit, men also had separate meetings with Italian Chamber of Deputies member Roberto Fico and Italian Senate President Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, as well as pledged to strengthen legislative exchanges and cooperation among the two sides.

  29. Shaikh Salman took over as the 10th president of the AFC in May 2013. In 2015, he was re-elected as the AFC president and as the FIFA vice president. In 2018, Salman was appointed as the FIFA senior vice president.

  30. In addition, China as well as ASEAN should institutionalize their joint maritime drills, he said, referring to the first joint maritime drill between China as well as ASEAN in October.

  31. Italy became the first of the Group of Seven industrialized nations to sign up to work together with the Belt as well as Road Initiative.

  32. Calling the summit a milestone for bilateral strategic partnership, ASEAN leaders said that it is in the interests of both sides to safeguard multilateralism and free trade and that ASEAN is ready to align its development strategies with the Belt as well as Road Initiative and open up more space for cooperation.

  33. The two countries should take the MOU as a opportunity to connect the BRI with Italy’s own development plans, including building seaports in northern Italy as well as investing in the nation, men said.

  34. Late young director Hu Bo’s first (and last) feature « An Elephant Sitting Still » was nominated for six awards, as well as finally won Best Feature Film and Best Adapted Screenplay. Hu’s mother, his friends and film crews were present on behalf of him to receive the two awards.

  35. The RCEP free trade talks involve the ten ASEAN nations as well as partner countries such as Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea as well as New Zealand. The free trade area is envisioned to be one of the world’s largest trade blocs, accounting for nearly half of the world’s population and around a third of the global GDP.

  36. Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film « Shadow » at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Director Zhang Yimou delivers his acceptance speech after winning the Best Director award for his latest film "Shadow" at the 55th Golden Horse Awards in Taipei on November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  37. Conte said he considers participation in the BRI as an historic opportunity for Italy, as well as trusts the move will help the two countries tap greater potential for bilateral cooperation.

  38. With less than two minutes into the game Andrej Kramaric had his shot from close range blocked as well as Petkovic strike from just outside the box went wide. Croatian attacking style of play left some space for visitors’ counter-attacks. Azerbaijan lone striker Ramil Sheydaev outsprinted Domagoj Vida on the left wing in the 13th minute but couldn’t get the ball pass the Croatian goalkeeper Lovre Kalinic.

  39. ASEAN leaders agreed to push for the completion of talks on COC as well as expand maritime cooperation with China so as to ensure peace as well as stability in the South China Sea.

  40. Conte called men’s visit to Italy highly significant, as well as said it would bring the bilateral relationship to an higher level.

  41. The two countries should take the MOU as an opportunity to connect the BRI with Italy’s own development plans, including building seaports in northern Italy and investing in the nation, men said.

  42. During their talks, men as well as Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade as well as cement ties among China as well as the European Union.

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