Les États-Unis face à un nouveau shutdown

Par le 6 février 2018

Ce 20 janvier dernier, à l’aube du premier anniversaire de l’investiture de Donald Trump, un shutdown a paralysé la première puissance mondiale. Un phénomène qui n’avait pas touché le pays depuis 2013.

Un shutdown, mais c’est quoi ?

Un shutdown est tout simplement un arrêt des activités gouvernementales aux Etats-Unis lorsque que le Congrès n’arrive pas voter le budget. A partir de ce moment, certains services dits « non essentiels » sont arrêtés tels que les emplois dans les parcs nationaux, les monuments ou encore dans les ambassades américaines. Les fonctionnaires sont alors mis au chômage temporaire, tandis que les fonctionnaires aux services « essentiels » restent en poste tout en ayant un salaire différent par rapport à une situation normale. On retrouve par exemple le corps militaire, médical ou pénal.

Pourquoi a-t-il eu lieu ?

Alors même que le président Trump fêtait sa première année à la tête des Etats-Unis, un shutdown a immobilisé le pays du 20 janvier au 22 janvier. En cause, le désaccord sur la question du renouvellement financier du programme DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) qui permet aux jeunes migrants de travailler légalement et d’être protégé de l’expulsion des Etats-Unis. En effet, le 19 janvier, les sénateurs américains devaient s’accorder sur le budget fédéral. Celui-ci devait d’ailleurs être voté en septembre, mais faute d’accord, le Sénat avait approuvé un financement provisoire à trois reprises. Ce 19 janvier annonçait donc la fin du troisième accord provisoire.
Un minimum de 60 voix était donc requis pour la mise en place de la procédure budgétaire. Or, la majorité n’étant composée que de 51 sièges républicains (Parti politique de D.Trump), les démocrates ont refusé le budget proposé tant que le sort des jeunes migrants n’était pas réglé. Ainsi, certains services ont été arrêté à partir de minuit, entraînant le début du shutdown.
Ce dernier s’est arrêté le 22 janvier suite à un nouveau vote au Sénat avec 81 voix contre 18. Après de nombreux échanges, certains démocrates ont finalement décidé de se placer en faveur d’un allongement du budget provisoire, à condition de trouver une solution pour les jeunes migrants.

Quelles sont les conséquences ?

Cet arrêt a condamné près de 850 000 fonctionnaires au chômage temporaire pendant trois jours. Ainsi qu’une baisse des revenus pour les employés de l’Etat dits “essentiels”.
Concernant, les “Dreamers”, jeunes migrants, seront également en difficulté dans les mois à venir. Si l’État abroge le programme DACA, ils vont devoir alors faire face à différents problèmes : une expulsion plus simple du pays, l’impossibilité de travailler légalement et des difficultés pour trouver un logement.

 

© Crédit photo : REUTERS/Carlos Barria

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