Un accord sur le Brexit enfin trouvé

Par le 26 novembre 2018

Le dimanche 25 novembre, les dirigeants des 27 pays de l’Union Européenne ont approuvé le « traité de retrait » précisant les détails de la sortie du Royaume-Uni de l’Union. Retour sur les grands points de cet accord.

Le Brexit, qu’est-ce que c’est ?

Le Brexit, soit « British Exit », désigne la sortie du Royaume-Uni de l’Union Européenne.

Ce dernier a ainsi été voté lors un référendum organisé par l’ancien Premier ministre, David Cameron, le 23 juin 2016 avec près de 51,9% pour cette sortie. Partisan du maintien du Royaume-Uni dans l’Union Européenne, celui-ci a démissionné après le résultat.

C’est l’article 50 du Traité sur l’Union Européenne qui consacre la sortie d’un État de l’Union Européenne. Ainsi, dès lors le déclenchement de cet article, les négociations de sortie peuvent alors commencer pour 2 ans.

En l’espèce, le 29 mars 2017, une lettre a été remise par le Royaume-Uni au Conseil Européen, attestant de sa volonté de quitter l’Union Européenne.

L’Union Européenne, qui souhaitait au départ des négociations rapides, a affirmé qu’elle ne céderait pas sur les points concernant le montant que devra verser le pays au budget européen, le statut des citoyens européens expatriés au Royaume-Uni et la frontière avec la République d’Irlande.

Les différentes parties du Brexit

Le Brexit n’oppose pas que l’Union Européenne et le Royaume-Uni, puisque des tensions sont présentes au sein même du parti Conservateur dans lequel fait partie Theresa May.

En effet, certains conservateurs prônent un « Hard Brexit » ou « Brexit dur » afin de retrouver la souveraineté totale du pays. C’est le cas de l’ancien ministre des Affaires Étrangères, Boris Johnson. D’autres, par contre, souhaitent un « Soft Brexit » ou « Brexit doux » afin de pouvoir conserver des relations commerciales avec l’Union Européenne.

Image result for boris johnson theresa mayTheresa May à gauche; Boris Johnson à droite (Crédit photo : Vox Political)

Quel accord ?

En premier lieu, a été décidé la mise en place d’une période de transition qui s’étale de la sortie effective du Royaume-Uni, le 29 mars 2019, jusqu’au 31 décembre 2020. Celle-ci devra permettre un temps d’adaptation d’abord aux citoyens, aux administrations ou encore aux entreprises. Cependant, le pays ne pourra plus prendre part aux décisions européennes.

Michel Barnier affirme à cet effet : « Les citoyens européens établis au Royaume-Uni et les Britanniques établis dans un État membre de l’Union avant la fin de la période de transition pourront continuer à vivre leur vie comme avant dans leur pays de résidence ».


Michel Barnier, chargé de négocier le Brexit avec Londres (Crédit photo : REUTERS/Yves Herman)

Un des points les plus sensibles de l’accord était la frontière entre l’Irlande du Nord et la République d’Irlande. Et pour cause, la sortie de l’UE impliquerait le retour du contrôle au frontière, l’Irlande du Nord étant une des nations du Royaume-Uni alors que la République d’Irlande est, quant à elle, un État indépendant faisant partie de l’UE.
Le problème est que cette frontière reste depuis très longtemps l’objet de controverses et a été la cause de conflits civils et religieux. Depuis le Vendredi saint du 1998, la frontière a été fragilisée et ni Londres, ni l’Union Européenne et ni l’Irlande ne souhaite le retour d’une frontière qui pourrait annoncer le retour de conflits.
Le backstop, ou filet de sécurité, a été choisi comme solution. Ainsi, le pays aura ainsi un statut unique, permettant de continuer les échanges avec des droits de douane exclusif.

Concernant la dette, le Gouvernement britannique devra s’acquitter d’un montant compris entre 35 à 39 milliards de livres soit environ 40 à 45 milliards d’euros.

Enfin, durant la période de transition, la Cour de justice de l’UE gardera sa compétence notamment dans l’interprétation de traités européens.

Ce projet d’accord, au préalable approuvé par le Gouvernement britannique, devra cependant être voté par les parlementaires britanniques et européens pour être effectif.

Quel impact du Brexit sur la France ?

Le Gouvernement affirme que même s’il se réjouit de ce nouvel accord, il n’en demeure pas moins que l’intérêt du projet européen et de la France prime avant tout. L’exécutif considère donc qu’il faut entre autres, préserver le marché unique, assurer une concurrence équitable entre les entreprises européennes et britanniques, garantir nos intérêts économiques, surtout dans le secteur de la pêche.

Édouard Philippe a d’ailleurs déclaré à ce sujet que « le Gouvernement britannique a endossé le projet d’accord conclu entre Michel Barnier et le négociateur britannique. C’est un grand pas, mais rien ne nous permet à ce stade de savoir si l’accord sera adopté ».

Les réactions

À la suite de l’accord, Theresa May a déclaré qu’il « est le meilleur que l’on pouvait négocier ».

Cependant, début 2017 celle-ci avait promis au peuple anglais et à ses « collègues » conservateurs un « Brexit dur » et qu’elle préférait une absence d’accord plutôt qu’un mauvais accord. On lui reproche donc d’avoir signé un accord favorable à Bruxelles et mettant à mal la souveraineté britannique. Ainsi, plusieurs membres du Gouvernement ont démissionné afin de démontrer leur désaccord avec ce traité.

David Davis, ministre ayant démissionné en juillet 2018 a déclaré après l’annonce de l’accord « Recherchons-nous un avenir en tant que nation indépendante ou acceptons-nous la domination de l’UE, l’emprisonnement dans l’union douanière et un statut de seconde classe ? ».

De plus, Boris Johnson, ancien ministre des Affaires Étrangères et illustre partisan du « Brexit dur », annonce « une chronique d’une mort annoncée »« Pour la première fois en mille ans, ce Parlement n’aura pas son mot à dire sur les lois qui gouvernent ce pays. C’est absolument inacceptable pour quiconque croit en la démocratie ».

Cependant, le député conservateur Jonathan Djanogly a affirmé suite aux propos précédents « Et voilà tous ces Brexiters jetant leurs jouets en dehors de leur poussette avant que l’on connaisse les termes de l’accord. Se pourrait-il qu’ils aient toujours voulu sauter de la falaise quels que soient les termes ? ».

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