Retour sur les élections américaines de mi-mandat

Par le 8 novembre 2018

Mardi 6 novembre 2018 se sont tenues les élections de mi-mandat aux États-Unis. Retour sur ses élections décisives au cours du mandat présidentiel américain.

Mais qu’est-ce que c’est ?

Tout comme le mandat présidentiel, les élections de mi-mandat (midterm en anglais) se déroulent tous les quatre ans et deux ans après chaque élection présidentielle.
Les midterm permettent aux citoyens américains d’élire les 435 personnes qui siégeront à la Chambre des représentants, ainsi qu’un tiers des sénateurs, donc 35 sur 100. De plus, trente-six gouverneurs vont être élus cette année. Ces élections sont également l’occasion pour les autorités locales d’organiser des référendums.

Que font-ils ?

La Chambre des représentants et le Sénat forment le Congrès aux États-Unis et font partie du pouvoir législatif. Entre autres, ce sont eux qui votent les lois fédérales. Par ailleurs, pour qu’une loi soit promulguée elle doit nécessairement être adoptée par les deux chambres du Congrès.


Le capitole, siège du Congrès (Crédit photo : Martin Falbisoner)

Quels sont les enjeux ?

Chaque fois, ces élections permettent de faire le point sur les deux premières années de mandat du Président en place. En effet, c’est au cours des midterm que la majorité de la Chambre des représentants ou du Sénat peut basculer, c’est-à-dire passer à l’opposition du parti du président. Les États-Unis assistent dans ce cas-là à une Cohabitation. Le président est donc obligé de gouverner avec l’opposition, ce qui est plus difficile pour faire passer ses décisions politiques.

Et cette année ?

Cette année, les élections de mi-mandat ont eu une résonance particulière puisque les votants ont été bien plus nombreux que durant les précédentes années. Ce sursaut d’intérêt est la conséquence d’élections vues comme un référendum « pour » ou « contre » Donald Trump.

Le 6 novembre, les américains ont ainsi pu voter pour leurs représentants. Comme l’avaient annoncé de nombreux sondages, la Chambre des représentants est désormais démocrate avec 222 représentants (la majorité est à 218) contre 196 républicains. Pour ce qui du Sénat, les Républicains restent majoritaires avec 51 sénateurs contre 44 démocrates et 2 indépendants. Enfin, chez les gouverneurs, on trouve 23 démocrates contre 25 républicains.

C’est donc une victoire a demi-teinte pour les deux partis puisque les démocrates espéraient une « vague bleue », c’est-à-dire obtenir la majorité au Congrès, tandis que Donald Trump a perdu la majorité au sein de la Chambre des représentants.
Néanmoins, c’est une opportunité pour les démocrates puisque ceux-ci pourront bloquer les lois et les financements, notamment celui du mur à la frontière mexicaine. De plus, ils entrevoient la possibilité de lancer des enquêtes sur l’administration de D.Trump. Ce dernier ne semble d’ailleurs pas effrayé d’avoir perdu une des chambres puisqu’il a tweeté  « Immense succès ce soir. Merci à tous ! ».


Cette élection est également particulière puisque beaucoup de femmes se sont présentées et ont été élues, parmi elles on retrouve une majorité de démocrates, notamment les deux premières amérindiennes au Kansas et au Nouveau-Mexique. De plus, pour la première fois, deux femmes musulmanes entrent au Congrès. La plus jeune représentante est également une femme, âgée de 29 ans, elle vient d’être élue dans la 14ème circonscription New-Yorkaise.

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