PORTRAIT. François Hollande

Par le 11 mai 2018

Président de la République Française du 15 Mai 2012 au 14 Mai 2017, qui est vraiment François Hollande ?

Né le 12 Aout 1954 à Rouen, François Hollande est un grand homme de la politique française. Après des études de droit à l’Institut des études politiques de Paris et une licence de droit obtenue en 1974, il intègre HEC Paris et est diplômé un an plus tard. A la manière de nombreuses personnalités politiques, il intègre l’ENA (Ecole Nationale d’Administration), et en sort 8ème de sa promotion. Hollande s’investit dès sa sortie de l’école dans la politique, en travaillant pendant 9 années à la Cour des Comptes, chargée de veiller à la régularité des finances publiques (Etat, établissements publics nationaux, entreprises nationales…) tout en multipliant ses activités politiques.

Dès 1974, François Hollande se positionne sur l’échiquier politique, en soutenant la candidature à la présidentielle de François Mitterrand, et plus décisivement en rejoignant le Parti Socialiste en 1979. Cependant sa candidature aux élections législatives de 1981 est un échec, Jacques Chirac l’emporte de peu sur lui. De 1983 à 1984, il est directeur de cabinet pour les porte-paroles du troisième Gouvernement de Pierre Mauroy. Il affirme plus encore sa position par sa participation à la rédaction d’un écrit satirique contre la droite. Ce n’est qu’en 1988 qu’Hollande est élu député socialiste de la première circonscription de Corrèze. De par sa fonction de secrétaire de la Commission des finances et du Plan, il affiche ses idées liées à la finance française et devient en 1994 secrétaire officiel du Parti Socialiste. Il y entame son ascension et en devient le porte-parole en 1995, puis premier secrétaire en 1997, à la suite de Lionel Jospin alors élu Premier Ministre. Après un siège de quelques mois au Parlement Européen, il devient vice-président de l’Internationale socialiste en 1999.

Qualifié en 2011 pour le deuxième tour de la primaire, il remporte le deuxième tour avec 56,57% des voix face à Martine Aubry. Il devient dès lors le candidat socialiste aux élections présidentielles de 2012. Opposé au Président alors en fonction Nicolas Sarkozy, il remporte là aussi le deuxième tour avec 51,64%. Sa campagne est notamment célèbre pour l’anaphore « Moi Président », dans laquelle François Hollande expose ses projets pour la France au cours du débat télévisé de l’entre-deux tours, comme la parité au sein du Gouvernement ou l’interdiction d’un cumul de mandats pour les ministres.

Le mandat présidentiel de François Hollande est marqué par de grandes décisions. La plus grande réforme sociétale mise en place par le Président de la République est la loi du 17 Mai 2013 autorisant le mariage pour tous. On note aussi le retour de la retraite à 60 ans, que son prédécesseur Sarkozy avait élevée à 62 ans. De nombreuses réformes sont sources de contestations, prenant la forme de manifestations, notamment dans le cadre de la légalisation du mariage homosexuel.

Portrait officiel de François Hollande

Cependant les retours sur le pouvoir de François Hollande sont très contrastés, avec le taux de contestation le plus élevé de la Vème République Française. Toutes les promesses faites en campagne ne sont pas tenues, et le Président doit faire face à des scandales, notamment liés aux affaires des membres de son Gouvernement : emplois fictifs de Bruno Le Roux ou encore fraude fiscale de Jérôme Cahuzac. L’opinion va jusqu’à soupçonner la légitimité de l’élection de Emmanuel Macron aux élections présidentielles de 2017, le considérant comme successeur dans la politique d’Hollande, mais ces doutes tombent lorsque celui-ci exprime sa réserve face aux décisions du nouveau Gouvernement.

Sa popularité étant à tombée à un faible niveau, de 60% en 2012 à 12% en 2018, son retour au premier plan de la politique française semble compromis au regard de la population.

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