Plan santé : les grands axes de la réforme d’Emmanuel Macron

Par le 25 septembre 2018

Le Président de la République a présenté mardi 18 septembre le plan « Ma Santé 2022 ».  Ce plan qui consiste en 54 mesures et qui est doté d’un budget total de 3,4 milliards d’euros d’ici 2022 vise à restructurer le système de santé en France, « l’un des piliers de l’Etat-providence du XXIe siècle » selon Macron, et pour qu’il devienne «parmi les meilleurs du monde ». En effet, Emmanuel Macron a souligné que « ce système de soins n’est plus adapté» et il estime que « notre système de santé ne souffre pas d’abord d’un problème de sous-financement. Il pèche par un vrai handicap d’organisation ». Mais quelles sont donc les principales mesures contenues dans son plan santé ?

Suppression du numerus clausus pour les étudiants en médecine

A travers un concours sélectif, ce système limite le nombre d’étudiants admis en deuxième année dans les filières de médecine, de maïeutique (pour devenir sage-femme), de pharmacie et de chirurgie dentaire. Selon la ministre de la Santé Agnès Buzyn, l’objectif de cette mesure est tout d’abord de mettre fin au « gâchis » et à « la souffrance » des étudiants en première année de médecine. En effet, sur 60 000 inscrits l’an dernier, plus des trois-quarts ont échoué.

Avec cette réforme, Emmanuel Macron veut « être sûrs qu’on forme bien et suffisamment de médecins ». Les étudiants dans d’autres filières universitaires « pourront rejoindre en 2e, 3e ou 4e année le cursus de médecine », sans devoir s’inscrire en première année et passer par le concours comme il le faut aujourd’hui. Cette réforme va permettre de diversifier le profil des médecins. « Ils rentreront en deuxième et troisième année sur examen et sur la qualité de leur dossier », a expliqué la ministre de la Santé. Selon Macron, « ce parcours de formation restera sélectif, mais sera plus ouvert, plus vivant. »  Le concours et la première année commune aux études de santé (Paces) auront ainsi disparu en 2020.

Etudiants de Montpellier tentent de valider leur 1ère année en fac de médecine. Source: France 3

Création d’assistants médicaux

Une autre réforme majeure est la création d’un nouveau métier, l’assistant médical. Ces assistants aideront les médecins généralistes en les déchargeant des tâches administratives et de certains « actes simples comme une prise de tension ou de température ». Emmanuel Macron envisage la création de 4000 postes dès 2019, ce qui permettra de gagner entre 15 % et 20 % de temps médical.

Dans la même optique, Emmanuel Macron a annoncé la création de 400 nouveaux postes de médecins salariés dans les « territoires prioritaires » pour lutter contre les déserts médicaux. Cette mesure devrait « permettre aux patients d’accéder à une consultation généraliste », dans tous les territoires.

Une réorganisation des hôpitaux

« Chaque hôpital devra se concentrer sur les soins pour lesquels il est le plus pertinent », a affirmé Emmanuel Macron. Il a annoncé la création d’hôpitaux « de proximité », des unités spécialisées et des unités ultra spécialisées. « Si on arrive à réorganiser les choses autour de ces trois niveaux, nous pourrons avancer vers une meilleure qualité des soins. » a confirmé Macron. Le statut d’hôpital « de proximité » sera créé par une loi en 2019 pour les 600 plus petits établissements.

Médecins de ville et hôpitaux de proximité devront travailler ensemble dans le but d’encourager les médecins libéraux à travailler en cabinet ou au sein d’une équipe de soins. Il souhaite que les médecins de ville ne travaillent plus seuls d’ici « à horizon de janvier 2022 ».

La ministre de la Santé,  Agnès Buzyn. Source: Le Parisien

Un « espace numérique » pour chaque patient

Emmanuel Macron a annoncé le « déploiement de nouveaux outils numériques » pour améliorer l’offre de soins en France. Un investissement de 400 millions d’euros est prévu pour le dossier médical partagé (DMP), l’espace numérique personnel et l’intelligence artificielle. Au mois de novembre, le DMP sera généralisé sur l’ensemble du territoire. Cet espace numérique proposera, « aux usagers de trouver toutes les informations les concernant dans un seul espace : carnet de vaccination, DMP, rappels, informations de santé fiables. Ils pourront aussi prendre des rendez-vous en ligne avec des professionnels de santé », précise Agnès Buzyn.

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