On parle de quoi pendant la COP24 ?

Par le 7 décembre 2018

La COP24, plus précisément la 24ème Conférence des Parties à la Convention de l’ONU sur le climat, se tient du lundi 3 décembre au vendredi 14 décembre à Katowice, en Pologne. Comme toutes les autres, elle durera près de 2 semaines et sera rythmée par de nombreuses négociations avec des acteurs étatiques ou non, comme des ONG ou des institutions.

Qu’est-ce que la COP ? 

C’est à l’issue du « Sommet de la terre » de Rio en 1992 qu’est entrée en vigueur la CCNUCC, soit la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques. Cette convention a pour objet de trouver des solutions face aux changements climatiques.

La COP est ainsi la réunion annuelle permettant de mettre en oeuvre les dispositions de cette même Convention.

Les avancées depuis la COP21 et les Accords de Paris

Il a fallu près de 21 ans pour que la grande majorité des pays du monde puissent trouver un consensus sur le climat. En effet, lors de la COP21, l’Accord de Paris est signé par 195 pays afin de limiter le dérèglement climatique. Celui-ci se traduit par plusieurs objectifs :

  • Maintenir la hausse de la température moyenne de la planète en dessous de 2°C
  • Adapter les sociétés aux changements découlant des dérèglement climatiques

Suite à cela, les COP22 et COP23 ont permis aux pays en développement et aux pays riches de commencer à réaliser leurs objectifs en étroite collaboration.

Image result for COP21

Les décisions et objectifs de la COP24

Cette année, la Banque mondiale a annoncé sa volonté de mobiliser près de 200 milliards de dollars entre 2021 et 2025 pour le climat, alors qu’elle en avait annoncé 100 milliards lors de l’accord de Paris.
Ces fonds pourront permettre aux pays en développement de s’adapter aux dérèglements climatiques, ces derniers étant les plus touchés.
Néanmoins, près de 20% de l’argent pourra permettre la mise en place d’alertes météos, ou d’infrastructures résistantes aux catastrophes naturelles.

Kristina Georgieva, la Directrice générale de la Banque mondiale a notamment déclaré à cet effet « Nous devons lutter contre les causes du changement climatique, mais aussi ses conséquences, qui sont dramatiques pour les plus pauvres ». Le thème de cette réunion sur le climat est donc très lié à la très forte collaboration entre les pays du Nord et les pays du Sud.

Cependant, suite à cette décision, Benoît Leguet, président du think tant Institute for Climate Economics a affirmé : « Ce sont en réalité 6 000 milliards de dollars par an qu’il faudrait investir les quinze prochaines années pour réaliser la transition en faveur d’une économie à faibles émissions de carbone. Il ne s’agit pas de trouver de nouvelles sommes, mais de dévier les flux financiers du marron vers le vert, par exemple en réaffectant le financement des énergies fossiles aux renouvelables. L’essentiel de l’argent va venir des économies des pays concernés : ce sont les Africains ou les Asiatiques qui vont payer pour leur transition énergétique ».

 

Image result for COP24
Aussi, l’un des plus importants objectifs poursuivi par la COP reste la transition « juste ». En effet, Andrzej Duda, Président de la Pologne a déclaré pour Le Monde : « Nous ne pouvons pas mettre en œuvre des politiques climatiques contraires à la volonté de la société et au détriment des conditions de vie. Ce matin, en me préparant pour la COP, j’ai allumé la télévision, j’ai vu ces images dans les rues de Paris, j’ai entendu ces gens ordinaires qui ne sentent pas pris en compte » et a même proposé à Emmanuel Macron de « se référer à la déclaration de la transition juste, un modus operandi »

Cette COP est d’autant plus importante avec la réticence des États-Unis à faire des efforts sur le climat depuis leur sortie de l’Accord de Paris, et les nombreux lobbies défendant l’utilisation du charbon en Pologne notamment.

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