Le Honduras face aux tensions politiques

Par le 21 janvier 2018

Suite aux dernières élections fin novembre, le Honduras se trouve dans une importante période de crise. En effet, la population et les opposants du pays contestent les résultats du dernier scrutin.

Un pays déjà très instable

Toutes ces instabilités ne sont pas nouvelles, le pays abritait en 2012, le plus fort taux d’assassinats par an (90,4 pour 100 000 habitants), ce qui en fait l’un des pays le plus dangereux du monde. Malgré une baisse assez importante ces dernières années (57 pour 100 000 habitants par an en 2014), le Honduras n’en reste pas moins violent.

Tous ces conflits sont en partie dû aux mafieux, très présents dans ce petit pays de 9 000 000 habitants et qui sont apparues à cause d’une pauvreté omniprésente (2/3 de la population est dans le besoin). Parmi eux, on connaît surtout les “maras”, des gangs de mineurs qui dominent les marchés du trafic de drogues et des crimes organisés. Plus encore, les cartels qui trafiquaient au Mexique au 20ème siècle se sont déplacés au Sud pour s’installer au Honduras et dans les pays frontaliers.

Que se passe-t-il avec les dernières élections ?

Les élections présidentielles du 26 novembre dernier ont provoqué une forte contestation de la part des populations. Tout d’abord, le président sortant de droite, Juan Orlando Hernández, réélu pour son second mandat est accusé d’avoir truqué les élections en manipulant les chiffres numériquement et en corrompant une partie de la population. De plus, la réélection étant interdite par la Constitution hondurienne, la population manifeste aussi contre la décision prise par la Cour Suprême, de retirer cette interdiction.

Face à ce soulèvement, le gouvernement déclara l’état d’urgence le 1er décembre dernier, ce qui entraina l’installation d’un couvre-feu de 18 heures à 6 heures. Ainsi, il s’agissait de donner plus de pouvoir à la police en attendant de prendre une décision concernant les accusations de fraude électorale.

Comment évolue la situation ?

Début janvier, Salvador Nasralla, a annoncé son retrait de la politique et la fin de l’Alliance de l’opposition. Cette annonce fait écho à la déclaration des Etats-Unis, reconnaissant le résultat des élections.

L’opposition ne baisse pourtant pas les bras. Celle-ci a donc demandé à ce que les suffrages soient de nouveau comptés en présence d’observateurs internationaux. Cependant, le tribunal suprême électoral (TSE) confirma par la suite l’élection définitive de M. Hernandez pour une durée de 4 ans (42,95% contre 41,42% pour M. Nasralla). De plus, un recours en nullité (demande à un juge d’annuler un acte juridique, ici pour éviter les excès de pouvoir) a été refusé par cette même Cour par manque de preuves concernant une éventuelle fraude.

Ce n’est pas pour autant que les manifestations cessent. Le 21 janvier dernier, le combat entre forces de l’ordre et manifestants fait encore rage, si bien que l’un d’entre eux perdit la vie dans les affrontements. Quant au bilan global, on compte une trentaine de morts.

Pour finir, l’investiture du président devrait se dérouler comme prévu le 27 janvier 2018, malgré une forte opposition venant de la population. Hernández pourrait ainsi avoir du mal à gouverner, à cause d’un peuple majoritairement contre la politique du nouveau dirigeant.

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