Le consul et son rôle

Par le 6 septembre 2018

Le vendredi 31 aout 2018 la CFDT (Confédération française démocratique du travail) décide de contester la nomination de Philippe Besson au poste de consul à Los Angeles. Selon le syndicat, l’écrivain et ami proche du couple présidentiel n’aurait pas les compétences requises pour être consul général. Mais du coup, qu’est ce qu’un consul et quel est son rôle ?

Un consul dirige un consulat, c’est-à-dire un ensemble de services diplomatiques implanté à l’étranger. Celui-ci est situé dans une ville importante du pays hôte, et exerce sa mission dans sa circonscription consulaire (limitation territoriale dans laquelle il peut exercer).

Le consul est souvent confondu avec l’ambassadeur, à tort : le rôle du consulat est de s’occuper des relations publiques de ses ressortissants dans le pays hôte, il n’a pas un rôle de représentation politique contrairement à l’ambassadeur mais d’administration publique. En bref, l’ambassadeur veille aux intérêts de son pays là où le consul ne s’occupe que des ressortissants de son pays.
Ainsi, il ne peut exister qu’une seule ambassade dans le pays hôte, celle-ci sera généralement située dans la capitale, alors que plusieurs consulats peuvent être implantés dans ce même pays.

En tant que représentation publique pour ses ressortissants (voyageurs ou habitants) le consul est alors chargé de plusieurs missions qu’il doit accomplir dans le respect des lois du pays accréditaire, à savoir :

  • Assister et venir en aide à ses ressortissants en cas de problème avec les autorités locales
  • Faire office de maire, de sous-préfet et de notaire pour ses ressortissants et donc s’occuper de leur état civil
  • Délivrer des documents officiels (passeports, cartes d’identité, visas, permis de conduire …)
  • Organiser les élections pour les français expatriés
  • Protéger les ressortissants en cas d’accident grave ou de maladie et protéger leurs biens
  • Informer ses concitoyens dans plusieurs domaines (économique, politique, culturel)

En conclusion, le consul est ainsi chargé de protéger ses concitoyens dans sa circonscription consulaire et de leur administration publique.

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