Jair Bolsonaro, personnage controversé à la tête du Brésil

Par le 30 octobre 2018

Il y a quelques mois, l’un des principaux candidats aux présidentielles, Lula, était au cœur d’une affaire de corruption qui l’a conduit en prison. Mais depuis dimanche 28 octobre, le résultat des élections présidentielles est enfin connu : Jair Bolsonaro, chef du Parti Social-Libéral (PSL), est élu avec 55,13% des voix.

Un premier tour déjà encourageant pour Jair Bolsonaro

Alors qu’au Cameroun se déroulait aussi des élections présidentielles, dimanche 7 octobre, les brésiliens se sont dirigés vers les urnes afin de voter pour leur candidat du premier tour.
Le résultat ne s’est pas fait attendre et la nouvelle de la montée du candidat d’extrême droite a fait le tour de la presse internationale. En effet, Jair Bolsonaro est arrivé en tête avec 46,1% des voix, un score très proche des 51% attendus pour passer au premier tour.
Son principal opposant, Fernando Haddad, a, quant à lui, atteint les 29,2%. Ce dernier étant le représentant du Parti des Travailleurs (PT), parti à la tête du Brésil au cours des treize dernières années avec successivement Lula et Dilma Rousseff.

Parade de militants pour Jair Bolsonaro (Crédit photo : Evaristo Sa/ AFP)

Mais qui sont-ils ?

Bien que son programme reste vague, Jair Bolsonaro, présenté comme le « Trump tropical » à cause de ses nombreux dérapages, notamment pour des propos racistes, homophobes et misogynes, a axé sa campagne sur l’aspect sécuritaire et anti-corruption.

En effet, le Brésil est considéré comme un pays violent de part son taux d’homicide élevé. M.Bolsonaro prône ainsi la libéralisation des armes à feu « pour la protection et la légitime défense des personnes et de leur propriété ». Il veut aussi permettre aux policiers et militaires d’abattre à vue des criminels présumés. Bolsonaro a également déclaré qui allait s’attaquer à la corruption et s’en débarrasser.
Toutes ses mesures sont ainsi vivement soutenues par des millions de brésiliens à la suite de l’affaire de corruption de Petrobras et du sentiment d’insécurité.

De plus, sur le plan économique, Jair Bolsonaro défend la privatisation des entreprises publiques pour réduire la dette brésilienne et le chômage. En ce qui concerne l’environnement, le candidat conservateur voudrait regrouper les ministères de l’Environnement et de l’Agriculture et ainsi favoriser les grandes industries agricoles.
Une mesure qui inquiète les défenseurs de la cause écologiste dans ce pays qui abrite la majeure partie de l’Amazonie, surnommée le « poumon de la planète ».

Jair Bolsonaro (Crédit photo : SIPA)

Fernando Haddad, quant à lui, a pris la tête du PT lors du retrait obligatoire de son prédécesseur, Lula. Ce candidat de gauche peu connu des brésiliens a dévoilé un programme opposé sur de multiples points à celui de Jair Bolsonaro.

En effet, celui-ci propose une amélioration du contrôle des armes à feu et « plus de transparence » sur le système politique afin de lutter contre la corruption. Il est par ailleurs en parfaite opposition sur le plan environnemental puisqu’il a pour projet d’éradiquer la déforestation dès 2022 tout en favorisant la production agricole.

Opposition aussi retrouvée sur ses mesures économiques, M. Haddad souhaite faire participer les entreprises publiques et permettre une baisse du chômage. Et pour cause, le Brésil est au cœur d’une crise économique, depuis quelques années, qui a fortement augmenté le taux de chômage dans le pays.

Fernando Haddad (Crédit photo : Rodolfo Buhrer/ Reuters)

Un second tour qui divise

Pendant l’entre-deux-tours les débats ont fait rage sur les réseaux sociaux et dans les journaux entre les deux candidats. Trois semaines marquées également par des manifestations, comme celle des milliers de brésiliennes contre M.Bolsonaro, « Ele Não » (« Pas lui »).

C’est donc dans un pays divisé par les opinions qu’ont commencé les élections du second tour dimanche 28 octobre.
À la clé, Jair Bolsonaro élu à 55,1% contre 44,9% malgré la tentative de Fernando Haddad de faire barrage au candidat d’extrême droite.

Et tandis que les partisans du PSL exultent de cette victoire, les millions d’opposants brésiliens craignent désormais que les valeurs démocratiques ne soient bafouées par le nouveau Président, qui a montré à de nombreuses reprises son attachement à la dictature militaire de 1964 à 1985.

Ainsi, Jair Bolsonaro, candidat d’extrême droite conservateur et fervent chrétien, sera investi en janvier 2019 succédant donc à Michel Temer (PT).

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